Conference Announcements
International Conference on “India and its Diaspora Engagement: Comparative Global Practices” organized by Organisation for Diaspora Initiatives, (ODI) New Delhi in Collaboration with Dias
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE on "New Indian Migrants' and 'Indentured Diaspora': Emerging opportunity for Indian Foreign Policy" 3-4 November, 2016 Venue: Rabindra Bharti Unversity, Kolkata
International Conference on DIASPORA AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN DEVELOPMENT: COMPARATIVE GLOBAL EXPERIENCES 10-11 January 2016, New Delhi
Interactive Lecture on "India and Indian Diaspora in East Africa: Past Experiences and Future Challenges by Dr. Gijsbert Oonk, Erasmus University, Holland 2 December 2015 at Conf. Hall 2 at IIC
International Conference organized by ODI on Indian Diaspora in Development of Home and Host Countries: A Comparative Perspective at Kadi University, Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat, 10th-11th January, 2015
OD Conference at Columbia University on A Foot in Each World: South Asian Diaspora Communities in the United States and their Interactions with their Homeland October 17, 2014, 2.00–5.00pm Altschul Auditorium, International Affairs Building (SIPA)
International Conference on "Women in the Indian Diaspora" organised by ODI in collaboration with IIC and CAS-Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi on 10-11 January 2014, at India International Centre, New Delhi
Conference on "Diaspora in India's Foreign Policy and National Security:A Comparative Perspective" on 6-7 November 2013 at New Delhi
International Conference on “India and its Diaspora: A Comparative Perspective” on 29-30 March 2013 at IIC
Books on Diaspora by ODI & its Members
Published in Collaboration with ODI
International conferences of ODI on Diasporas
Organised in India
Interaction and Talks organised by ODI
Collaborations with Academic Institutions
ABSTRACTS
(In Order of Programme Schedule)
 
AN EXPLORATION OF THE INDIAN DIASPORIC COMMUNITY IN EAST AFRICA: IDENTITY FORMATION, CULTURAL SURVIVALS AND CHANGE
 
 Dr. Purnima Mehta Bhatt, Professor of History Anthropology and Interdisciplinary, Hood College, Frederick, Maryland, USA
 
My paper examines the migrations and the history of Gujarati Indians to East Africa. Gujaratis with their enterprising spirit, entrepreneurial skills and a spirit of adventure have settled in distant corners of the world. My research explores the diasporic community of Gujaratis in East Africa in the overall context of other migrations. It will examine their pioneering efforts in the commercial exploration of the interior of the continent and their contributions to economic development and the struggle to overthrow colonial rule.
 
Like all other diasporic communities worldwide, the Gujaratis have faced the challenge of having to construct a new identity in the adopted home, while making necessary adjustments and adaptations in the new environment. The paper will discuss aspects of cultural continuities, change and survivals, especially in language, religious beliefs, values and attitudes towards caste, class and gender relations. It will also include a discussion of ‘cultural memory’, their fantasized dreams of their land of origin and hopes of return. I will conclude with some thoughts on the future and prospects for the resolution of tensions and stresses in multi-racial, plural societies.
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TRANSNATIONALISM AND THE FORMATION OF BROWN CONSCIOUSNESS OF YOUNG INDIAN YOUTH IN VANCOUVER CANADA
 
Mr. Rodrick Lal, Educational Psychology, Vancouver, Canada
 
Using the theoretical framework of transnationalism, this research investigates the identity formation of Punjabi, Tamil, Gujarati and Indo-Fijian youth (ages 16-24 years) in Vancouver Canada. By applying a case study design we propose a critical race theory  approach to the study of transnationalism and the many ways of being and ways of belonging between India and Canada. The conceptualisations of ‘Indianness’ in  these diasporic(transnational) communities becomes the colour of the skin in the ways of being and belonging due do Canadian White Racism. Brown consciousness evolves  as a pan-ethnic identity of these young people in Vancouver Canada.
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THE IMMIGRATION OF INDIAN AND AFRICAN INDENTURED WORKERS IN REUNION ISLAND IN THE XIXth CENTURY: COMPARATIVE STUDY
 
Dr. Chaillou- Atrous Virginie, Doctor en Histoire Contemporaine, CRHIA- Universite de Nantes, France
 
The immigration of indentured workers occupies a central place in the history of Reunion island in the contemporary period. Indeed, after the abolition of slavery of 1848, the colony of Reunion island is sorely lacking workforce to assure the culture of the sugar cane. The planters demand then the generalization of a new working shape already experimented on the island in the first half of the XIXth century: the system of free work under contract or indentured labour. So, several tens of thousands Indians leave their native country to make a commitment and come to work, for salary, on plantations in Reunion Island. By their laborious efforts, these men and these women contributed to the development of the society of plantation of the second half of the XIXth and widely participated in the populating and in the identity construction of the island. This communication redraws the route of these immigrants come from India to Reunion Island in a comparative dimension. Indeed, if the history of the indenture labour in Reunion island concerns mainly workers of Indian origin, it also concerns Africans. We shall see that both migratory phenomena are connected even if the history of Indian indentured differ largely from that of their African counterparts. While committed Indian are recruited among a population of free condition and benefit from the British protection, committed African are captured in their village, reduced to slavery and sold to the French recruiters of Reunion .This distinction of size will not be without consequence on the social status of some and others once arrived on the island and on the relationships which they maintain with the Creole society.
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SOCIAL DISCOURSE, COMFORT ZONES AND THE GLOBALISING WORLD: SOUTH AFRICAN INDIAN EMIGRANT AND RESIDENT DOCTORS ON THE NEED TO MIGRATE
 
Prof. Anand Singh & Ms. Devi Manilal Panday; Prof. Anand Singh, Anthropology, University of KwaZulu Natal , Durban,South Africa
 
This paper is about conversations and opinions of Indian medical personnel who are working outside and inside South Africa.  It covers the views of two groups of medical general practitioners and medical specialists.  The first group, with whom interviews were done as casual conversations individually and collectively, were employed outside the country. They were in an age group beyond sixty years of age, while the group inside the country were below the age of 40 years and were interviewed individually.  While the older group saw themselves as being bestowed with the twin advantages of experience and wisdom, the younger often articulated feelings that were in juxtaposition to one another.  They expressed their appreciation for the comfort zones in which they were established but felt at odds with themselves when they compared their situations with their counterparts working in other countries, especially in the Middle East and the developed English speaking countries (especially the ‘big five’ viz. USA, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand).  However settled, members from each segment felt about themselves, the conversations were fraught on both sides with degrees of ambivalence, regret, success and confidence about their futures.
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ROLE OF INDIANS IN THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DEMOCRACY IN FIJI: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
 
Dr. Amba Pandey Centre for Indo- Pacific Studies, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
 
Fiji went to polls on 17 September 2014, ending the eight year wait after the coup in 2006. This is a notable step forward for a fragile democracy prone to coups and changing constitutions (four coups and four constitutions since its independence in 1970). There is no doubt that the Constitution which the 2006 coup leader Frank Bainimarama brought in September 2013 is a landmark and a bold departure from the past in several ways. It introduced ‘one person, one vote, one value principle’ and opened the use of the term ‘Fijians’ to identify all its citizens as against the previous race based identification. It dismantled the unelected upper chamber, the Great Council of Chiefs, the hereditary body of the ethnic Fijian tribal chiefs and brought the youth into political fold by reducing the voting age. Although these changes have been welcomed by many including ethnic Indians who got equal rights with indigenous Fijians,  only time will tell, how well democracy is sustained in Fiji and whether, Bainimarama, the new Prime Minister, manages to become a bulwark between Indo-Fijians and a Fijian nationalists. 
 
Nevertheless, a peep in the history reflects that emergence of Fiji as a democratic state with equal recognition to all its citizens has a history of a long and difficult struggle by the Indo-Fijians to make Fiji a democratic country. The paper seeks to explore the role of Indians in democratic polity of Fiji in a historical perspective.
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JOURNEYS OF THE WOMEN OF INDIAN DIASPORA: AS ‘CARRIERS OF CULTURE’, PRESERVERS OF IDENTITY AND CONTESTATIONS OF GENER ROLES
 
Ms. Jenna Sikka, Sociology Department, Syracuse University ,New York, USA
 
Recent literature in the field of diasporic return migration has primarily focused on two issues: reasons for return and the role of home country governments in reintegration upon return. However, as the return migration of Indian American migrant families to India has become more prevalent in the past decade, the imperative grows to sociologically analyze this trend in terms of how it is seen through the eyes of men and women returnees. This exploratory qualitative research with returnees in the city of Vadodara, Gujarat explores the role that gender plays in the reintegration process upon return. I discover that once in India, reintegration is not a streamlined process for the whole family: while men focus on ties that assist them with structural aspects and reintegrate through participation in political and economic activities, women tend to focus on cultural reasons and reintegrate through participation in cultural and social processes. It is through this framework that men and women organize their stories of migration, and ultimately, their lives. My study makes unique contributions to the scholarship on Indian return migration in that it tells these stories through the standpoints and lived experiences of male and female returnees, as opposed to existing macro-level analyses that have only assessed larger trends. Findings of this research can also augment existing governmental programs to aid returnees who believe they can make meaningful contributions to their home country, an endeavor that will mutually benefit the Government of India, Indian returnees, and the Indian society at large.
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INDIAN ACTIVISM IN THE FIRST DECADE OF APARTHEID: CASE STUDY OF THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL GROUP AREAS ACT AND INDIAN RESPONSE IN REFUTING THE DISCRIMINATION
 
Mr. Suraj Milind Yengde,  Centre for Indian Studies in Africa, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
 
The post-World War II era witnessed two very important events in the history of twentieth century politics. In 1947 India gained independence and in 1948, the nationalist government in South Africa came into power. Apartheid policies in South Africa led to the breakdown of relations between India and South Africa. Nehru announced to the Indians in South Africa that they should consider South Africa as their motherland and fight their battle without relying on Indian support. This statement raised Indian activism in South Africa to a level of political maturity and Indian activism officially assumed the character of a diasporic struggle.
 
In order to understand the impact of the apartheid government, one has to first study the important decade of the 1950s. This paper will focus on the scenario of the notorious Group Areas Act, 1952, its implementation and the role of Indian community in responding to the Act. Two major Indian organisations played a pivotal role in promoting a regional awareness of the Act: the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC). Both organisations organised important conferences protesting against the Act. They saw the Group Areas Act as threatening the very existence of the Indian community in South Africa. The Indian community drew upon the history of atrocities to protest against the existing conditions of non-whites in South Africa. The NIC and TIC framed their protest around Gandhi’s ideals of passive resistance. During the 1950s struggle, the argument was raised to reclaiming a lost “Indian” identity; an argument that had not been raised before.
 
Engaging with the archival materials of Natal Indian Congress conference in 1958 and the private papers of prominent Indian figures such as Amina Cachalia and collection of Hassim Seedat; this paper provides exclusive insights into the tactics employed by the Indian organisations in refuting the Act. It will also shed light on the internal political conflicts between the leadership of NIC and TIC. This paper argues that apartheid was contested from the 1950s on by the Indian community in South Africa.
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FORGOTTEN CHILDREN OF THE DIASPORA: INDIAN CHILDREN DURING THE ERA OF INDENTURED LABOUR IN SAINT LUCIA
 
Terencia Joseph Chair,Department of History and Social Studies, School of Humanities, University of the Southern Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago
 
Within the discourse of Indian Indentured labour experiences of children who traversed the Kala Pani, were born on its waters or became the first generation born in the Diaspora are largely undeveloped. The lack of research does not reflect the importance of children in Diaspora communities and instead is a testimony to the nature of the sources which are mostly silent on the lives children and the lack of analytical tools to assess what information there is. Persons below the age of ten constituted significant proportions of migrant populations; the figures for Trinidad, Colonial Guiana and St. Lucia reveal that they were thirty, twenty five and seventeen percent, respectively. Moreover, while women are viewed as the purveyors of culture, children have the distinct position of bridging the gap between the old and new spaces. This paper therefore discusses definitions of the child within the cultures that the indentured labour scheme operated in Saint Lucia and the ways legislations governing the scheme incorporated such individuals. It also examines their experiences in the economic, education and health sectors on the island. Creolisation theory is used as the overarching framework to investigate their circumstances. Thus, the principal argument proposes that children were instrumental in the creolization process allowing for the development of a new community in the host society.
 
Key words: Children, Creolization theory, Diaspora, Indentured labour, Indians, Saint Lucia
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CONTRIBUTION OF INDIANS IN MADAGASCAR
 
Prof. S. N. Malakar, Chairperson, Centre for African Studies, School of International Studies, J NU,New Delhi, India
Madagascar is an archipelago, situated in West Indian ocean. There are 20000 Indians in Madagascar. Out of 20000 Indians, 18000 are Muslims and 2000 are Hindus. Among Muslims who constitute the majority, are Bohras (40 %), Khojas (35 %), Ismalis (13 %) and Sunnis (5 %) and some Suratiais. Among Hindus, there are the Sonis (Goldsmiths) who constitute the largest number, the Lohnas or Baniyas and small number of Brahmins.
 
Muslims control the retail sectors, hotel business and many other business of Madagascar. Hindu mostly Goldsmiths controls the entire gold markets of Madagascar. Both communities control 50 % of the economy of Madagascar. This is often source of distrust between Malagacies and the Indians resulting in anti-Indian riots at times. In sea-shore areas, some peasants from Punjab are also trying to avail the lands on lease for cultivation but negotiations are still to be finalized for the lease period.
 
Indians have been a very vital factor in the articulation of Madagascar economy. But as far as the question of assimilation and integration process is concerned, it appears to be weak. Indian origin, specifically from Mauritius and other West Indian Ocean regions have been oftenly visiting Madagascar for business purposes. Some cultural and educational exchange efforts have been also made by Indians but this has been on very low scale and has not been able to culminate into strong intimate relations.
 
The paper will focus firstly on Indians migration pattern in Madagascar, secondly its contribution and thirdly its impact on Indians-Malagacy social relations.
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PROBLEMS OF CONNECTIVITY: INDIAN DIASPORA FROM DIFFERENT LINGUISTIC REGIONS WITH INDIA: CASE OF LANGUAGES AND DIALECTS DISCONNECTIVITY AMONG FIJI INDIANS
 
Dr. Rajni Chand, Coordinator School of Language, Arts and Media Faculty of Arts, University of the South Pacific, Laucala Campus
Suva, Fiji Islands
 
Approximately 60,965 Indians were sent to Fiji as Indentured labourers between 1879 and 1916. Majority of these came from Northern parts of India embarking from Calcutta. Later, a smaller number of workers were sent from the Southern parts of India. After 1916, Gujeratis and Punjabis went to Fiji as free migrants. Being the farthest and the last colony where the Indians were sent, all these Indians tried their best to keep their language, culture, tradition, and religion intact, probably seeing these elements as symbols of identify with their motherland. When Indians moved to Fiji more than a century ago they took with them their religious books, limited literacy and resources. Later educational institutes and religious organisations were set up to aid in the retention of Indian language, culture, and tradition. When they could eventually afford, many have travelled back to India for number of reasons including religion, education, tourism and business. All these were aided by the fact that they shared common languages. Even today, the language spoken by Fiji Indians has traces of the dialects spoken in the Northern parts of India.  Nonetheless, recent events have taken a toll on the linguistic tie that Fiji Indians have with India. The political coups of 1987 and events after that have seen migration of close to 1000,000 Fiji Indians to other parts of the world, particular to Australia and New Zealand. These movements and recent educational policies in Fiji have had an impact on the language connectivity that the Fiji Indians share with Indian languages.
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THE ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA AND HOST COUNTRIES
 
Ms. Molly Banerjei , Journalist, Toronto, Canada
 
 
The Indian Diaspora has become a force to reckon with both economically and politically in almost every continent of the world. Its role in the development of India and host countries can no longer be either ignored or undermined.  Since the recent Lok Sabha elections the Indian Diaspora’s interest in connecting with India has intensified. The current Prime Minister of India, Mr Narendra Modi has generated a lot of hope and expectations among the Indians settled abroad. They are convinced that the moment in time that they have all been waiting for, has finally arrived. This excitement along with Indian Diaspora’s deep desire to contribute to India and India’s interests abroad, if harnessed properly can propel India into an era of unparalleled growth and development. The NRI community is in a position today to play a major role in it. In fact the Indian Diaspora is crucial to this endeavour. India’s ‘Make in India Campaign’ success depends on the full engagement of its diaspora. Their willing contributions to India and in host countries can be instrumental in generating 8% to 9 % consistent annual economic growth that India is aspiring for. The measures adopted by India thus far to partner with the Indian Diaspora have not been able to harness the full potential of this partnership. Thus, beyond the sound and space of Indian values and the essence of being Indians, there still lies a significant number of NRIs that remain skeptical, disenchanted and disappointed. They seek ‘conducive environment’, recognition and a more engaging relationship with the motherland. The disillusionment that India has been feeling by what it perceives as a lacklustre response from the other side, can be mended easily. For these reasons, this paper seeks to identify the role that Indian Diaspora can play in fulfilling India’s dream to be the next economic super power in the world. It will also identify some of the ways in which Indian Diaspora can play a major role in the development of the host countries as well and make recommendations that are critical to the success of this crucial partnership.  
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INDIANS IN EAST AFRICA: ESTABLISHING LINKAGES BETWEEN DIASPORA AND DEVELOPMENT
 
Prof. Aparajita Biswas, Professor,Centre for African Studies,University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India
 
The Indian diaspora in Sub-Saharan Africa represents a significant population in its size, spread and depth. Within this sub-region of the continent, the Indian diaspora seems to have penetrated deepest in East Africa, where both People of Indian Origin (PIOs) and Non-Resident Indians (NRIs) have occupied significant positions in national political and economic institutions.  The presence of the Indian diaspora in the Eastern African countries is prominent in government, civil services, businesses and academics, more so than other regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. 
 
Eastern African countries boast of strong, successful Industrial overseas Indian community. As academics and entrepreneurs, they have distinguished themselves and contributed in considerable measure to the development of their host countries. Yet it is argued that their engagement – economic, social and cultural– with India is currently short of its potential. The paper focuses on Indian diaspora in Eastern African nations, being those that represent not only have the largest presence of Overseas Indians in mainland Africa, but also a significant strategic importance for India. The paper examines the link between diaspora and development and concludes that it’s a relationship that needs to be nurtured for mutual benefit. It argues that the Indian diaspora in East African countries have contributed to the economies of the host countries and now are in a position to play a part in India’s developmental efforts.
 
This paper also looks into India’s policy perspectives on its Diaspora. Several experts have referred to the seeming ‘ambivalence’ in both the policy and practice of India’s engagement with its overseas community in the ‘historical’ context.  It is the view of this paper that India does have a robust Diaspora engagement policy and one that is evolving with the active involvement of the Diaspora itself. However, it is significant to understand whether this policy is enough to stimulate an active diasporic involvement in India's development, and if not to prescribe options to encourage a dynamic and mutually beneficial relationship between the Indian diaspora in East Africa and the Indian political, social and economic institutions. 
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GROWING POLITICAL INTEREST OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN HOMELAND POLITICS
 
Prof. Sanjay Lodha, Head, Department of Political Science, Udaipur University, Rajasthan, India
 
In recent times there has been an upsurge in academic interest about issues concerning the Diaspora. Globalization and the opening up of closed economies as well as the ICT revolution have facilitated growing intervention by the Diaspora both in their homeland as well as host countries. In their home countries, the Diaspora is looked upon as a source of regular flow of remittances and investments in trade and industry. They have also been involved in transfer of knowledge and skills. There have been occasions when the Diasporas have acted as a lobby to push homeland agenda in their adopted lands. Instances are not rare where a critical mass of this community has also supported their homeland clan in pursuance of their grievances against homeland governments. Based on the aforesaid engagements of the Diaspora, academic work relating to them has focused on these very issues. At the same time, literary writings have sought to unravel familial and social issues pertaining to the Diaspora.
 
However, one dimension which has somehow escaped serious academic interest is the fast evolving political role of the diaspora in homeland politics. One may come across a few journalistic writings on the issue but there is ample scope for serious research on the political perceptions of the diaspora. In the immediate context of India, with the installation of the NDA government under the stewardship of Narendra Modi, this aspect of Indian politics has assumed a critical place. The aggressive manner in which the Prime Minister has endeavored to cultivate the overseas Indian community can hardly be overlooked. That as a political party the BJP and its mentor, the RSS, have long been targeting this community is no news. But the overwhelming support which the AAP, born out of the India Against Corruption movement, received from the professional segment of the diaspora has resulted in a virtual political competition for wooing this community. The recent promises made by the new government for facilitating greater diaspora involvement is a well calibrated strategy to promote policy as well as politics.           
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CONTRIBUTION OF INDIAN DIASPORA FOR HOME AND FOR HOST COUNTRY
 
Dr. Rajesh Sharma & Dr. Vibha Dwivedi, Faculty of Education, Kadi Sarva Vishva Vidyalaya,, Gujarat, India
 
Diaspora is a group of people which has moved from an original homeland to other countries and retains, or develops, both a common vision of the homeland and a strong ethnic group consciousness by cross border social activities. Indian Diasporas have created achievements on the land of host countries with respect to science, culture, management, teaching and skilled workforce. There are several Indian origin personalities and institutions have charmed the West and other parts of the world. The creation of Global Indian Society has retained the root values with its homeland. Various economic and social development initiatives brought in to bring investment in India from other countries. In total Indian Diaspora is able to generate balance between their home and the host country, and contribute significantly in development of the whole world.
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CONTRIBUTION OF PARSI DIASPORA IN AFRICA
 
Dr. Meher Mistry, Department of History, Ramniranjan Jhunjhunwala College, Mumbai, India
 
The Zoroastrians who migrated from Iran following its conquest by the Arabs and made India their home from around the seventh century are termed as the Parsis. This paper attempts to study the Parsi diaspora in South Africa and East Africa. Parsis were part of the Indian migrants that began to settle in South Africa from 1860 onwards. Immigration of Indians was halted by the newly formed South African Union in 1911. There is no record of the exact number of Parsis that settled in South Africa from 1860 to 1911, but it is certain that the Parsi population in South Africa was always between 100 to 200 and in 1987 by which time the population had considerably dwindled due to political exigencies in South Africa it was around 80.
 
The Parsis faced several difficulties due to the race classification issue. Due to the Immigration Regulation Amendment Act, it became impossible for them to bring in Parsi brides from outside. Although miniscule in numbers the community achieved excellence as doctors, lawyers, insurance agents, land and estate agents, shippers, forwarding and clearing agents, traders, accountants etc. The Parsis were actively involved in the Indian Diaspora’s political Satyagraha in South Africa. The Parsis were also settled in East Africa mainly at Nairobi and Zanzibar. This paper will try to examine how the community maintained their socio-religious identity and contributed to the political and economic life in their African settlements. Recourse will be taken to oral history to generate an overview.
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CONTRIBUTION OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN STRUGGLE AGAINST APARTHEID THROUGH THEATRE: A STUDY OF WE 3 KINGS 
 
Dr. Pranav Joshipura, Associate Professor Department of English,  Uma Arts & Nathiba Commerce Mahila College, Gandhinagar,Gujarat, India
 
History of Indian settlement in South Africa is known for it’s rising from dehumanized indenture status to becoming one of the wealthiest and most powerful communities. However, history also acknowledges the contribution of Indians towards fighting against unjust apartheid regime. Many Indians rose to prominence during the long-fought anti-apartheid struggle and played crucial role in Nelson Mandela-led African National Congress and other social and political organizations. Along with the political and social resistance, many writers too joined the anti-apartheid movement by artistically opposing the unjust rule. Muthal Naidoo is one of the leading South African Indian playwrights who exposed the white government’s vile policies.
 
Muthal Naidoo’s play We 3 Kings ridicules Prime Minister Botha’s attempts at proposing constitutional and political reforms in 1982 while introducing the Tricameral Parliamentary system. This three-layer parliamentary system, however, was viewed by people as creating further discrimination among races. The Indian community was to be represented by the South African Indian Council (SAIC), a stooge of the government. This play shows how the Indian community rejected the elections of the SAIC and how the so-called show of democracy by the apartheid government was only hollow lacking support of the majority.
 
This paper shall try to investigate the Tricameral Parliamentary system, the SAIC elections and the Indian community’s response to all these political game. The paper also shall discuss how a few of opportunity seekers took benefit of the situation also contested despite opposition of the majority. Attempts also shall be made to highlight the government’s vein and desperate all-out attempts to consider this election as successful and thereby claiming to the world-community that all is well within South Africa.
 
This play is a ridicule, a farce and a satire. It evokes hilarious laughter but also presents irony of the situation. While discussing the play, a glance shall also be thrown at the history of Indian colony in South Africa, contribution of the Indians in the anti-apartheid struggle, the cruel diaspora rule as well as Indian theatre in South Africa.
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ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF KENYA
 
 
Dr. Bijay Ketan Pratihari, Academy of International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India
 
Indians have been interacting with the coastal regions of Eastern Africa. However large number of Indians went as indenture labour to East Africa mainly to work in the railway construction. Indian diaspora has played a significant role in enhancing the close cooperation between India East Africa. The presence of diaspora has been a catalyst for industrial growth and investment in the region particularly in Kenya. Economic growth is being attributed among other factors to diaspora also. This in turn has placed diaspora in the path towards attracting and shaping patterns of trade, investment and economic growth.
 
This paper will look into Indian diaspora in Kenya and identifies their contribution to politics and economies of Kenya. In the political field they participated in the national movement and made significant contribution to the nation building process. The success stories of entrepreneurs are legendary and they are playing a key role in the industrialization process of Kenya.   
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ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF INDIA: A CONTEMPORARY OUTLOOK
                                                                                                         
Ms. Kumari Chandni, Research Scholar, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University,New Delhi, India
 
India has the second largest Diaspora in the world. The overseas Indian community estimated at over 25 million is spread across every major region in the world. The overseas Indian community is the result of different waves of migration over hundreds of years driven by a variety of reasons-mercantilism, colonialism and globalization.
 
Diaspora contribution to the state of origin has been made in various ways, through remittances, foreign direct investment (FDI), transfer of knowledge and entrepreneurial networks. The contribution of the Indian Diaspora to India’s economy and society is a matter of great pride and achievement for Indian’s the world over.
 
Since 2003, India has been the world's largest recipient, at least in absolute terms, of remittances, defined as the inflow of private transfers. Also, in relative terms, remittances gained considerable importance since they now make up a larger chunk of India's gross domestic product: 3.3 percent in 2007 according to the World Bank versus 0.7 percent in 1990-1991 according to the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). In addition to remittances, India has seen growth in capital inflows, in the 1970s; the government authorized special deposit schemes for non-resident Indians (NRIs) to increase its foreign-exchange reserves.
 
Given India’s large domestic market opportunities, FDI in several sectors like automobile parts, IT sectors, Oil is bound to take off in the coming years. The important point is that policies and investment facilitation are part of larger set of factors that influence FDI; they cannot substitute hard economic considerations. Thus, given the right conditions, the Indian Diaspora will be second to none in seeking economic opportunities in their countries of origin and contribute to its economic growth. The Diaspora will benefit from the high returns to venture capital in a rapidly growing economy like India, new business contacts that might lead other global opportunities, and new employment opportunities for the professional skills.

 

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UNSWERVING FOREIGN FINANCIAL FLOW: FDI, OVERSEAS ASSISTANCE AND REMITTANCE FROM DIASPORA
 
Dr. Rikin D. Patel, Controller of Examination, SGSU, Gujarat, Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Lecturer, KSV, Gujarat and Mr. Vijay Tripathi Asst. Prof, SMPIC, Gujarat
 
The paper examines the cyclicality, firmness and sustainability effect of international diaspora remittances,  Foreign  Direct  Investment (FDI)  and  Overseas  Assistance (OA).  The  paper finds  that:  i)  FDI  is more  firm in urban area than  remittances  and  OA,  and  remittances  are stable in the rural areas;  ii) all three chain, remittances, ODA, and FDI are all pro-cyclical in the rural region iii) All three financial flows are concentrated upon certain regions of the country. FDI has no sustainability effect in any part of the country. The whole paper is divided in five parts. The first part carries introduction and primary information about the paper. Second part describe the literature review. Third part is about the methodology applied and data collected. Part four views the result and part five shows the conclusions.
 
Key Words: Diaspora, Remittance, Foreign Direct Investment, Overseas Assistance.
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TRANSNATIONALISM AND INDIAN DIASPORA IN LUSOPHONE AFRICA
 
 
Dr. J. M. Moosa, Associate Professor, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
 
Indian Ocean served as a vibrant link for commerce and exchange amongst the different littoral countries for ages much before the advent of European domination. The arrival Vasco da Gama and Portugal ascendance in the region resulted in enhanced interaction between different Portuguese controlled territories. As a consequence large number of people from Goa migrated to Mozambique and other territories. They played a pioneering role of moving into the hinterland and establish themselves into a successful and dynamic community. Similarly the Ismaili Khoja community utilised the opportunity provided by British expansion and domination of the region to spread across in different waves and settle down in different countries. Some of them also settled in Mozambique and Angola. In the post independence era as a consequence of different rounds of migration and cyclic movements these communities have transformed themselves into a transnational community with linkages spanning from Brazil and Europe all the way across to Africa and India. The paper proposes to study and compare the social reproduction of identities and transnational tendencies amongst these communities and its impact on India external engagement. 
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INDIA’S “ACT-EAST’ POLICY AND ITS DIASPORA AS A STRATEGIC RESOURCE
 
Dr. Amit Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Amity School of Liberal Arts, Amity University, Gurgaon, India
 
The large presence of Indian Diaspora in the Asia-Pacific region can play a pivotal role in strengthening India’s profile in the region and can also act as a lynchpin in fulfilling India’s strategic dreams with regard to its “Act-East” policy. Hence, the paper is an attempt to critically evaluate India’s “Act-East” Policy and its impact on Indian Diaspora. The paper will also discuss how the Indian Diaspora could play an important role in achieving New Delhi’s foreign policy objectives in the Asia-Pacific region.
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ANALYSING THE ROLE OF PRAVASI BHARATIYA DIVAS (PBD) TO ENGAGE INDIAN DIASPORA
 
Dr. Santosh Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor, Aurobindo College, Delhi University, New Delhi, India
 
According to the Government of India, there are around 25 million people of Indian origin living outside India, they live in nearly every country of the world. Since independence (1947), the government of India has explicitly urged Indian emigrants to identify with their host countries. But since mid-1980s, the Indian diasporic communities and the Government redesigned their stance toward one another. The Indian Government has taken some new policy and institutional initiatives to strengthen and build the ties with Indian Diaspora.
 
In this process in 2000, the GOI has commissioned a high profile committee to research and write an extensive report on the Indian diaspora. On the basis of their recommendations, on January 9th 2003, the government has inaugurated its first annual conference of overseas Indians, known as the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (PBD) or “Overseas Indian Day” every year. The PBD try to provide a platform to the overseas Indian community to engage with the government and people of the land of their ancestors for mutually beneficial activities. It also work as successfully in networking with among the overseas Indian community residing in various parts of the world and enable them to share their experiences in various fields.
 
In this regard, this paper will evaluate the role played by the last twelve PBD to strengthen the ties between Indian across the world. This paper will also share the experience and view of Indian Diaspora people participated in the PDB. Finally, from the policy perspective, it will analyse the role of PBD to achieve its goals and end.
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EMERGING ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA AS A STRATEGIC RESOURCE FOR INDO- SOUTH AFRICAN RELATIONS
Dr. Vidhan Pathak , Assistant Professor, Department of African Studies,University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India
 
India began to resolutely court its diaspora and started setting up dedicated institutions and incentives for overseas Indians in the 1990s with the onset of economic reforms in the country. Though economic factor has remained the most important driver of India’s policy approach towards its diaspora, however it led to the realisation of many other aspects related to the significance of diaspora for the country’s growth and development. Thus, India is engaged in a vigorous strategy to rope in its diaspora not only for economic purposes but also to strengthen its relations with their host countries. This also holds true for the Indian diaspora in South Africa. Not only India is eager to draw its diaspora for the purpose but diaspora and South African government on their part are also now willing to accept such linkages to strengthen the bilateral relations.
 
Indian Diaspora as a political group during apartheid period and now as the most advance educational and professional ethnic group in South Africa is one of the important driver of Indo-South African relations. They provide familial and trading links between the two countries and have remained instrumental in increasing exports from India. South African Indians with their entrepreneurial skills and capital can play a direct and an intermediary role in promoting India’s relations with South Africa.
 
With the above perspective, this paper will attempt to assess the role and contribution of South African Indians in South Africa. It will further examine the emergence of Indian Diaspora as an important factor in strengthening India’s linkages with the South Africa. It will also highlight the initiatives taken by the Indian foreign policy in recent years to strengthen its relations with South Africa with Indian Diaspora forming the bridges of cooperation.
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SECURITY OF INDIAN DIASPORA AND INDIA’S FOREIGN POLICY
                                                                                                         
Ms. Dhanwati Yadav, Research Scholar,  School of International Studies,  Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
 
The inception of history had devoid of any dichotomy introduced the paces of immigration or the history itself has been a process of migration. Immigration is found as an inevitable part of human history. With the rising of the waves of globalisation the seeds of immigration are discovered on a large scale in an unprecedented manner. Movements are driven by varied purposes like, for the search of asylum, work or better livelihood; but movement at the international level dictates the movement across state borders. The term ‘Diaspora’ - a synonymous to the process of traditional immigration is derived from the Greek word ‘diaspeiro’ which means ‘scattering’. “Originally Diaspora was referred to the dispersal and settlement of Jews outside of Palestine following the Babylonian exile”. So, traditionally the term ‘diaspora’ is used to refer to Jewish Diaspora. But the exploration under the globalization age reveals that the diasporas have registered there global presence and voluntary movement is being noticed departing from the erstwhile involuntary marches as indentured labourers by the colonial forces. Today the diasporic groups are overwhelmingly contributing to their home and host-land countries in a comprehensive manner. But contrariwise diaspora policies adopted by the home-land countries are not up-to-the-level and satisfactory. So, the theme of this paper is to throw light on the concept that the national interest is the chief determinant of India’s foreign policy involving the diaspora policy. Whether the diasporas are facing challenges or in dire need of India’s emotional or material support, it is the national interest that determine and shapes diaspora policies.
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CHANGING POLICY OF GOVERNMENT TOWARDS ITS DIASPORA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF KENYA AND INDIA
 
Ms. Priyadarshika Subba,  Research Scholar, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
 
In a rapidly globalizing world, developing countries have had to adapt and adopt new ways to gain the ability to integrate with the larger world outside in order to become a dynamic nation. Developing countries like India and Kenya therefore to acquire this ‘dynamism’ have recognised and realized the need to establish the important bridge between diaspora and development. The success of this bridge is heavily dependent on two conditions, firstly, on the part of the diaspora, to develop and project a coherent and motivated progressive identity and on the part of the home country to establish conditions and institutions for sustainable and a mutually rewarding engagement.
 
There are several reasons for this paper’s focus on India and Kenya’s diaspora policies. There is a significant diaspora presence of these two countries abroad. The Indian diaspora is among the top three, population wise globally and the Kenyan diaspora amongst the top ten amid African nations. This paper will analyse how Kenya has witnessed rapid emigration to the developed world only in the last three decades and although their diaspora is fairly new, there has been a major interest of the Kenyan government towards its diaspora. There has also been the expressed interest of the network of Kenyans abroad in development efforts in Kenya. On the other hand India in contrast has been historically a much older diaspora but along with the different governments in power Indian foreign policy and in turn its diaspora policy which is its major soft power has had to make several hard choices along the way.
 
This paper will focus on how there has been a significant shift of these two countries to avoid viewing diaspora through the narrow looking glass of just remittances and quantifiable outcomes but instead to see diaspora as an agent to access knowledge, expertise, resources and markets for the development of both the home and host locales.   
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DIASPORA IN DEVELOPMENT: ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN 21ST CENTURY
 
Dr. Tanuja Singh Post Doctoral Fellow, Centre for African Studies,School of International Studies,J NU, New Delhi, India
 
A successful, prosperous and politically influential diaspora is an asset to India, for it acts as a vibrant bridge between two countries, adding sustenance to their bilateral relations. In the wake of   globalization and radical structural changes in the world  economy,  Indian Diaspora is considered a viable and potential source to bail out the threatening problems before India. The significant presence of diverse Indian community in the various parts of the globe has also had implications on India’s diplomatic relationship with many countries. Indian diaspora which was abandoned by India since its independence also saw new initiative by Government of India to woo its diaspora worldwide. The Prime Minister  Mr. Narendra Modi's early foreign policy blitz and his emphasis on economic "deliverables" suggests that he is rewriting the nationalists' script on what will determine India's power, to include a strong emphasis on economic growth. The Indian Diaspora is estimated to be second largest in the world and has a diversified global presence. The Diaspora, estimated at over 25 million, is spread across more than 200 countries with a high concentration in regions such as the Middle East, the United States of America, Malaysia, South Africa.  Members of the Indian Diaspora do play a significant role in mobilizing political support for in their country of residence on issues of vital concerns to India. A tangible and scrupulous policy is imperative to leverage upon the growing   Indian Diaspora population. With the versatile role of Diaspora, India could fulfil its cherished dreams and it could make much head way in its international and foreign affairs.
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ROLE AND DILEMMA OF ERITREAN DIASPORAS IN THE PROCESS OF THE ERITREAN POLITICAL REFORMS DURING 21ST CENTURY
 
Mr. Nuguse Bahre.G, Research Scholar, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi,India
 
It is undeniably true that the statehood of Eritrea’s is at stake as it is apparently going through “no war no peace” condition, UNSC imposed sanction , immense international pressure for human rights violations and most importantly under a state of an imminent outbreak of war with Ethiopia any time soon. Such standoff resulted into internal dismay, inconceivable influx of refugees with grave alarm that provoked the reaction of diaspora which yet remain bizarre to fathom on the role played out to that effect. Understandably, the role of diaspora is acknowledged not only in sustaining and winning war of liberation but also in the reconstruction and development process following independence.
 
This paper therefore, seeks to examine the role of diaspora under the condition and hope of the government opening up/ undertaking restructuring and reform endeavors. It argues, that diaspora conscious driven approach is in disarray as the very organization per se is pathetically structured in a narrow line and largely remain a mere virtual transnational networking that lacks effective power to leave mark on ground. Besides, the paper endeavors to highlight on the practices and conflicting take of diaspora that had ramification on deconstructing, or and reforms in the political developmental process that invariably cries for.
 
Key words: Eritrea, diaspora, sanction, reforms/ political development
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ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA AS HERITAGE RESOURCE IN INDO-AFRICAN RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY ON TANZANIA
 
Ms. Ruchi Verma, Research Scholar, School of International Studies,Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
 
With the beginning of 21st century the process of global economic, social and cultural integration has received a stimulus from the presence of transnational communities. In such circumstances the study of Diaspora has gained momentum. Diaspora is a diversified group in terms of their language, identity, status, socio-economic political role, level of integration and assimilation. The actors of Diaspora are either looked at with suspicion or with awe. Diasporas have been posited as challenging traditional state institutions of citizenship and loyalty, and as an important feature of the relationship between domestic and international politics.
 
Indian Diaspora is playing a very significant role in international affairs due to its presence in large numbers in almost all parts of the World. Africa is the host of more than three million people belonging to Indian Diaspora. And it is an undeniable fact that a new dimension to India-Africa relations was added when a large number of Indians went to, and settled in Africa. But as a heritage resource Indian Diaspora contribution to the African society had not got much attention thus, this paper will try to look into that gap. This paper will particularly focus on Indian Diaspora in Tanzania and thus, taking Indian Diaspora into account as a heritage resource will try to look into India-Tanzania relations. This study will look into what are the challenges and opportunities in utilizing Diaspora as a heritage resource.
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INDIAN INDENTURED LABOUR MIGRATION TO MAURITIUS: ROLE IN POLITICAL EMPOWERMENT
 
Dr. Sushmita Rajwar, Assistant Professor, Maharaja Agrasen College, Delhi University,Delhi, India
 
The expansion of sugar production in Mauritius and the abolition of the slave trade are among the most important reasons which led to an acute labour crisis in Mauritius. This gave way to the Indian indentured labour migration to Mauritius which was a replacement of the slave labour that existed before. Slave trade was abolished in 1833 and was implemented in Mauritius in 1835. The first batch of Indian indenture labour ship arrived in Mauritius in 1834. While slavery was being abolished, indenture labour system was designed and implemented as and where slavery got abolished. Indenture labour went to same territories largely for the same work which slaves used to do. In the later phase of slavery large number of Indians were also taken as indentured labour as India was under subjugation of colonial rule as domestic workers, artisans and sugar cane cutters in the capacity of workers.
 
The Indian diaspora played a major role in the political development of Mauritius. The political set up in Mauritius has been dominated by people of Indian origin since the independence from British rule in 1968. The major political parties are headed by people of Indian origin too.
 
The current paper would like to examine the journey of the Indians in Mauritius from the time they reached the land as indentured labourers till the time they dominated the political scene and reached the Parliament.
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CONTRIBUTION AND ROLE OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN KNOWLEDGE BASED INDUSTRIES: A CASE OF USA
 
Mr. B. K Pandey,  Indian Economic Service, Government of India,New Delhi, India
 
High-skilled immigrants are a very important component of U.S. innovation  and entrepreneurship. Immigrants account for roughly a quarter of U.S. workers in these fields, and they have a similar contribution in terms of output measures like patents or firm starts. This contribution has been rapidly growing over the last three decades. In this context, it will be interesting to examine the impact of Indian skilled immigrants on US economy and society.
The Indian population of approximately 200,000 in the San Francisco Bay Area represents one of America's most successful immigrant groups. The Bay Area has only six million people of which half a million are Indians. And of those Indians, 72% work in the tech sector. Of the total tech firms that get funded in the US, 50% are in Silicon Valley. Indian entrepreneurs are the faces behind a growing number of US tech startups. For instance, two of the first investors of Google - the leading Internet search company – are of Indian origin.
A study by the US based Kauffman Foundation shows that 33.2% of the cofounders of engineering and technology firms founded by immigrants in the US since 2006 were Indians. The next came the Chinese, at 8.1%.Another study done in 2007 for the period 1995 to 2005 had found that Indians accounted for 26% of the co-founders during that period. So there's been a 7 percentage point increase in the Indian contribution in the post-2005 period. In fact, the Indian immigrant contribution was the only one that increased; most other immigrant communities saw a decline in their contributions, leading to a general stagnation in immigrant entrepreneurship in the US.
The Indo-US Entrepreneurs broke the ice by creating an entrepreneurial culture, blurring regional differences that existed among immigrant entrepreneurs.Indian IT companies and the visa-holders they sponsor play a vital and vibrant role in America's economy and the communities in which they work. Highly skilled foreign-born individuals have been praised repeatedly for their invaluable innovations and contributions in the U.S. The IT companies that sponsor them are also regularly recognized for their work and their contributions to the American way of life. Today, Indian-based IT service providers employ well over 50,000 U.S. citizens and recruit and hire more each year. The industry supports more than 280,000 other local U.S. hires and aids many U.S.-based companies in developing new products and improving operations and efficiencies. This, in turn, helps them both preserve and create jobs here in the U.S.
Currently, there are more than 20,000 Indian millionaires in the US and many of them Indian knowledge workers provide a variety of economic benefits to the USA and its regional economy such as New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania regional economy. They provide a highly-skilled workforce which enables firms in the region to grow and innovate, giving them an edge over firms in other parts of the country which do not employ these workers. Employing Indian knowledge workers helps to keep jobs in the region, as opposed to other parts of the United State or abroad. The economic activity they generate benefits many groups in the region. Evidence suggests that the cost to local workers who are in the same field as the migrants is probably quite small, relative to the overall benefit to other workers, firms, and taxpayers in the region.
The key objectives of this paper are:
• To analyze the increasingly important role of the successful Indian Diaspora in the US in facilitating growth within the knowledge intensive industries -- (particularly the IT industry and other high-end sectors) and the two way flow the Indian Diaspora generate in terms of investment, innovation, employment,, growth etc in both the countries.
• To identify and analyze the future opportunities for the Indian knowledge-intensive sectors in the global economy and to forecast the expected role of Diaspora in facilitating further growth and development of US and Indian economy.
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INDIAN DIASPORA IN UNITED STATES: ROLE AND STATUS
 
Mr. Aditya Anshu, Research Scholar, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi,India
 
About 2.6 million Indian Diaspora with their families are residing in the United States of America. The people of Indian origin are the third largest immigrant population in the United States, but historically it was not an important and significant country of settlement for the Indian and Indians were not a major source of immigrants for the United States. The Indian Diaspora has comparatively young population with higher level of economic and academic attainment that set them apart from other Diasporas in United States. The trends in migration to US highlights that Indian immigration to United States have been largely through foreign temporary worker, family based preference and student admission programs. Also, the other factor for migration is the majority of benefit out of the H-1B program that Indian immigrants get. The United State’s largest temporary worker visa category and Indian together makes up the second largest group of international students at US colleges and university after Chinese. Demographically, Indian Diaspora is widely spread across the country, but the best of the population is located in California, New Jersey and Texas. New York is considered to be the metropolis but it is also the hub of the activity and resident-ship of the Indians in US, followed by Chicago and San Jose, CA.  Indian Diaspora in United States is highly organized and represented in countless number in the associations and organisations formed across the United States. All of these groups are well funded and professionally connected. Many Indians have well established links and connection with India in terms of economic, social and cultural engagement. Government of India also values the importance and positivity of Indians abroad and their role in Indian foreign policy. For this purpose, the Government of India has created many programs and a specific ministry for the same. Indian Diaspora has the potential and acts as a tool to contribute towards the economic development, growth and prosperity. This paper would try to look towards Indian Diaspora in United States, their role and contribution in US as well as India.
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CONTRIBUTION OF INDIAN DIASPORA IN MOZAMBIQUE
 
Ms. Neha Sinha, Research Scholar, School of International Studies,Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi,India
 
Diaspora is defined as the movement, migration or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland” or “people dispersed by whatever cause to more than one location”, or “people settled far from their ancestral homelands. Out of the twenty five million people of Indian origin across the globe, there are three million of them in the African continent. The PIOs of Mozambique are remarkably successful not only in economic field but also in the social and political sphere. The PIOs of Mozambique are educated and actively participate in the public and political sphere barring a few. Despite the presence of Indians in Mozambique for several centuries and the adverse circumstances that they had to face during Portuguese rule, they have retained their culture, tradition, attire and also their Indian lifestyle. Not only this there relation with their host countries also plays a significant role.
 
Diaspora plays a very important role in the economic development of their home country. The Indian Diaspora other than sending remittances to India, also promote trade and FDI, create businesses and encourage entrepreneurship and transfer of new knowledge and skills. Diasporas have been important participants in any strategy made to engage diaspora at international level.
 
The Government of India wants to engage with its diaspora as actively as possible. There are a number of programmes launched by the Indian government especially for its diaspora population under the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs which was launched specially to this effect. On the other hand the number of programmes has also been launched by the mozambiqan government to establish a good relation with people of India.

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ROLE AND CONTRIBUTION OF SOUTH AFRICAN AND MAURITIAN TAMIL DIASPORA IN HOMELAND AND HOSTLAND: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE
 
Ms Jayanthi Ramasamy, Research Scholar, School of International Studies,Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
 
In the universal phrase, the study of the dissemination of populations and cultures across many geographic regions and spheres has augmented and so the Diaspora studies have came out as a vivacious area of research amidst rapidly increasing globalization. Therefore, migration is measured to be one constructive step in that direction. In other way, the nuclear statement in migration is that the human beings has all the capabilities and potentialities of leading a high–quality life, but, it is the atmosphere, the social-system around him, that made opportunities and his efforts to reach the high goals of life through migration. The study of Tamil migration has been of immense interest exact from the most primordial days especially during the Cholas regime and its expansion. Tamil migration is considered to be a foremost influence on the social-authenticity they were scrutinizing. In recent years there has been a developing body of work dealing with issues of Diaspora and hybridists, both within cultural geography and international Studies.
Tamil Diaspora is thedemographic group of Tamil people of Indian origin who have settled in other parts of the world. The study examine about the comparative analysis of the Indian Tamils with a regional specialization in South Africa and Mauritius and its connection with India and also their contribution and role towards host countries. This paper tries to find out and understand the causes and consequences of various manifestations of Indian Tamil Diaspora and to explore the relationship between South Africa, Mauritius and India. It focuses upon the role and contribution of Tamils in main themes such as historical connections, socio-cultural connections, economic connections and political connections with India and also their host countries of both South Africa and Mauritius with the contrast and estimation. This paper will also study about the mutual benefits, cooperation and their contribution towards success of each other.
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STATUS AND ROLE OF THE INDIAN DIASPORA IN UGANDA IN COMPARISON TO THE INDIAN DIASPORA IN TANZANIA
 
 
Ms. Debjani Naskar, Research Scholar, School of International Studies,Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi,India
East Africa has been a favorite destination for Indian immigrants since centuries. Indians in Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania share a history in which cultural encounters and collaboration became the backbone of the India-Africa relations.During the 19th century, the British were expanding their empire in Africa, and this period a large number of People of Indian Origin (PIO) were taken to African countries in different capacities as indentured worker, railway worker, artisans, and slaves.
A large number of Indians entered Uganda as indentured labour for the construction Uganda railway lines. After the completion of the railway line many returned back to India, but a large number of them preferred to stay back. People of Indian Origin were one of the most elite and prosperous class in Uganda. However, this community never assimilated with the locals. Racial divide existed openly. This racial divide and rapid Africanisation after Independence created disharmony in the country. Finally this led to the infamous exodus of 1971, by the then President and a dictator Idi-Amin. After the domestic turmoil in Uganda, which left Uganda in shattered state, Museveni government changed the picture of Uganda internationally.  Economic revival began with the swearing of Yoweri Museveni as the country’s president. Museveni also realised the prominence and significance of Indian diaspora and their contribution to the economy of Uganda. President Musseveni offered series of incentives to the expelled Indians, enticing them to return back with their investment capital, and their business skill.
Alike Uganda, in Tanzania to a large number of Indian entered as indenture labour. There were batches of Indian labourers engaged mainly for railway construction and later Gujarati traders followed. In Tanzania, Indian diaspora tended to be more careful and wiser, and participated in civil, economic and political development of the nation.Post-independence, the leadership of Julius Nyerere ensured peaceful transition and equal representation for all Tanzanian people, thus escaping the conflicted path taken by Kenya and Uganda. This Paper will discuss and compare the role and contribution of the diaspora in Uganda and Tanzania, and how they were recognized by the local government of both the nation.
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INDIAN WOMEN PRESERVING CULTURE AND IDENTITY IN THEIR HOST COUNTRIES AS REVEALED FROM CELEBRATING LITERATURE
 
Dr. Amrita Paresh Patel, Principal Uma Arts and Nathiba Commerce Mahila College, Sarva Vidyalaya Campus, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
 
 
Women of Indian Diaspora have played a key role in carrying the Indian culture abroad and also striven hard to retain their identity of being Indian in their host countries. Their efforts have played a major role in creating an awareness of the importance of retaining traditional values of Indian society and various perspectives of ancient Indian cultural heritage.
 
The present paper intends to study the contribution of Indian female novelists of Diaspora, particularly, Bharti Mukherjee and Jhumpa Lahiri in preserving Indian culture and Identity in their host country, America. Bharti Mukherjee’s Desirable Daughters (2002) and Jhumpa Lahiri’s Namesake (2003) are chosen as exemplary novels which reflect the portrait of traditional Indian families. These two novels even depict contemporary American sagas of women who are compelled in many ways to break with their own tradition in the world of multi-culture and yet have remained tied to their native country.
It is intended to explore:
·        Similarities of the experiences of these two authors in America.
·        The aspirations, challenges and dilemmas of the first generation and subsequent generations of immigrants from India and their struggle for identity and belongingness.
·        The utility of the literary genre of novel to express their striving by these two creative writers.
·        The outcome of the depiction of their experiences as women of Indian Diaspora.
Keywords: Diaspora, Women of Indian Diaspora, Indian Cultural heritage, Creative writing.
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INDIAN WOMEN DIASPORA IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND BEARERS OF INDIAN CULTURE
 
Ms. Hema and Ms. Lalitha, M.Ed Students, Department of Education, Kadi Sarva Vishwavidhyala, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India
 
Indian women immigration increased since last few decades mainly due to the emergence of liberalization, privatization and globalization in all over the world which led economic growth and an invitation to foreign capital. Majority of them immigrate particularly for academic pursuit or economic gain either towards the European and western countries particularly the USA. The inhabitants of these countries reacted differently to the ways of immigrants. Despite the growing number of immigration of women in the United States of America, the incident of discrimination and cultural problems of Indian women has received little attention. Therefore, the paper aims to explore the concept of Diaspora and Indian Women Diaspora. Secondly, it presents a brief account on Indian migration to USA and list out few great personalities of the Indian Women Diaspora. Finally, the paper attempted to present review of few case studies of the Indian Women Diaspora in USA on the challenges and issue for preservation of culture and their survival. The findings indicates that in almost all the cases the emigrant face a close of contrasting cultures and feeling of alienation, which was  then followed by the attempts to adjust and to become accustomed either from a separate identity as a racial group or be assimilated. In concluding the authors also suggests that regardless of the need and reasons behind the Indian women Diaspora, the Indian women should be the carriers of Indian culture, it should be nurtured and transformed to the subsequent generations and the Indian identity should be sustained in the homeland and in the host country. 
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GENDER AND INDIAN DIASPORA: BEYOND ‘CARRIERS OF CULTURE’
 
Ms. Abhiruchi Ojha, Assistant Professor,Lady Sri Ram College for Women (LSR),University of Delhi, India
 
Indian Diaspora is dynamic based on religion, class, place of origin and other identities. Gender plays a crucial role in construction of Indian Diasporas where women are often constructed as carriers of culture. Over the years, women within Indian Diasporas have been able to actively engage with the issues of gender, identity, development and assert their agency.  Scholarship on gender and Indian Diaspora suggests that unlike the common perception of ‘dependent migration’ among the women from India, many migrated as independent actors consciously taking the decision to move away from situation they faced in their homeland. However, reproduction of family and society in patriarchal terms has contributed to construction of Indian diasporic women and their development status in host countries. The paper aims at examining the gender dynamics of Indian Diaspora with special focus on South Africa. In doing so it looks at the ways in which women are positioned differently in society and vis-à-vis home and host countries. The politics of community identity in a radicalized society leads to overlooking of gender dynamics within the diasporic communities in overall development paradigm. The paper argues that it is important to locate the interactions of diasporas in all complexities in order to understand its contribution to development of home and the host.
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