Conference Announcements
International Conference on “India and its Diaspora Engagement: Comparative Global Practices” organized by Organisation for Diaspora Initiatives, (ODI) New Delhi in Collaboration with Dias
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE on "New Indian Migrants' and 'Indentured Diaspora': Emerging opportunity for Indian Foreign Policy" 3-4 November, 2016 Venue: Rabindra Bharti Unversity, Kolkata
International Conference on DIASPORA AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION IN DEVELOPMENT: COMPARATIVE GLOBAL EXPERIENCES 10-11 January 2016, New Delhi
Interactive Lecture on "India and Indian Diaspora in East Africa: Past Experiences and Future Challenges by Dr. Gijsbert Oonk, Erasmus University, Holland 2 December 2015 at Conf. Hall 2 at IIC
International Conference organized by ODI on Indian Diaspora in Development of Home and Host Countries: A Comparative Perspective at Kadi University, Gandhi Nagar, Gujarat, 10th-11th January, 2015
OD Conference at Columbia University on A Foot in Each World: South Asian Diaspora Communities in the United States and their Interactions with their Homeland October 17, 2014, 2.00–5.00pm Altschul Auditorium, International Affairs Building (SIPA)
International Conference on "Women in the Indian Diaspora" organised by ODI in collaboration with IIC and CAS-Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi on 10-11 January 2014, at India International Centre, New Delhi
Conference on "Diaspora in India's Foreign Policy and National Security:A Comparative Perspective" on 6-7 November 2013 at New Delhi
International Conference on “India and its Diaspora: A Comparative Perspective” on 29-30 March 2013 at IIC
Books on Diaspora by ODI & its Members
Published in Collaboration with ODI
International conferences of ODI on Diasporas
Organised in India
Interaction and Talks organised by ODI
Collaborations with Academic Institutions
ABSTRACTS
Indian Diaspora Policy: Challenges to Development Interface
 Prof. Ajay Dubey,CAS-SIS ,JNU,  New Delhi, India
India Diaspora policy was reversed in early 1990s to meet the macro challenge of balance of payment problem for India. The success of India Resurgent Bonds and similar instruments enabled Indian government to make diaspora engagement broad based by reciprocating to their expectations and launching several initiatives to formalise and deepen that link to harness diasporic resources active under globalisation. By learning from other global diasporic engagements, Indian expectation grew and it tried to mobilise diasporic investment, philanthropy, developmental projects through government initiatives. Subsequently, UPA government which came to power in India, established a full fledge diaspora ministry away from Ministry of External affairs with independent minister. This created turf tussle between the two ministries of the same government. This along with other factors, resulted in Indian diaspora policy focusing more on home issues of Indian oversease workers and diluting the importance of Indian diaspora in foreign policy for realising objectives like investment mobilisation, lobbying, soft power use and diaspora as a strategic resource. Moreover, since the diaspora of India is microcosm of Indian diversity, it prefers its involvement on regional, linguistic and ethnic basis. As the government agencies created to tap diasporic resources are suspected of corruption and inefficiency, diaspora engages itself directly with their preferred link in India. Its potential to contribute to development is neither mobilised by MEA access overseas nor regulated or monitored within India to have optimal result or for desirable developmental impacts.
The paper will try to examine the main policy constraint in utilising diasporic resources for developmental projects in India.
Diaspora and Development: India’s Experience with Remittances
Dr. Amba Pande, School of International Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru Univeristy,New Delhi, India
As Diasporas become integral part of national economies seeking to participate in the developmental process of home and the host lands simultaneously, countries around the world are applying different strategies to rope them in for various aspects of development. Remittances are one of the major ways in which the diaspora contribution gets manifested. Remittances impact the economy at both macro and micro levels directly influencing the poor households in terms of basic needs such as food, shelter, education and health care. On the down side, however, remittances can lead to ‘Dependency Syndrome,’ ‘Excessive Consumption’, ‘Non-productive Investments’, or can act as destabilizing forces through ‘Havala’.
India has been the highest recipient of worker’s remittances for past several years. Remittances have played a crucial role in the economies of several Indian states like Kerala, Goa, Punjab and Gujarat. However the absence of a coherent policy framework has impeded the optimum utilisation of remittances and has also led to its negative impacts in India. My paper aims at critically examining the various aspects of the inward remittances received by India over the years and explore ways for its optimum utilization by looking at best practices in other countries.
One People, Two Nations: Disporic Sikh Community in Canada and ties with India
 
Dr. Amrit Kaur Basra, Faculty Member, Delhi College of Arts and Commerce,Delhi University,New Delhi, India
 
The existing Scholarship on migration across time and space has explored the role of human agencies, politics and economic pressures in structuring the mobility of individuals and communities in different countries. The pace was quickened during the period of Imperialism staring with the “Age of Discovery” in the fifteenth century. The existence of diasporic societies in various nations of the world is a living reality. The ongoing changes in the realm of communication, particularly in ICT has led to the existence of globalvillage. India has been a part of this experience. 
 
 Under British colonial rule, Indians as indentured laboureres were forcibly sent to various parts of British colonies. The situation was different in Punjab where Sikhs were part of free migration to Canada.  Over the period of time, they became Canadian citizens. However, from the outset links with motherland were retained. It has resulted in strengthening of ties with families, community and Indian nation.
 
The aim of present paper is to analyze thenature and structure of migration by focusing on the lived experiences of Sikhs since the beginning of 20thcentury in Canada and their relationship with India. The paper would focus on the nature of development that was experienced by diasporic community at personal and interpersonal levels .It is a fact that migrants from Punjab have invested both human and economic resources for the development of physical spaces and communities they left behind. The economic dynamics of this aspect will be explored.         
 
In the process, the role of multiculturalism, policies adopted by Canada towards diaporic communities and that of India with diasporic community of Indian origin in Canada would by highlighted. It is hoped that the changing nature of migration would help in understanding the role of economic and cultural factors in the creation of global citizenship bound by political boundaries of nation states.
 
Two Nepali Sisters: Diaspora as a Network Strategy
 
Annette Skovsted Hansen, Associate Professor, School of Culture and Society,University of Aarhus, Denmark
 
Diaspora is an expansion of a national or family network that can be activated for the benefit of the family and home nation in multiple ways. The argument is based on two life stories. Two Nepali sisters attended Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS) training courses in Japan at different times during the 1980s. The training was partly funded by official development assistance provided through the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). They used their training very differently, but between the two of them extended a family network from Japan and India to Denmark and Seattle. They both use the connections and skills acquired in Japan, but one is now living in Seattle and the other in Kathmandu. One is a manager in a chocolate factory using Danish products in the Seattle area and the other has started an income generating environmental NGO in Nepal while still pursuing a career in a Japanese company. Their children have or are studying in Japan, India, and the USA. The Nepal-based sister is a key stakeholder in the regional cooperation in South Asia. By engaging network theories of weak ties and scaled networks, the life stories become templates of a family strategy, where the stakeholders use education as the driver and different family members contribute to the social and economic development of Nepal. Challenges to the strategy include family ability to channel diverse resources to complement each other and to ensure sustained ties between the home and the diaspora.
Indian Diaspora in Africa: Tracing the role in the development of East African nations
Prof. Aparajita Biswas, Centre for African Studies,Mumbai University,Mumbai, India
 
In contemporary international relations, Diasporas have become significant actors of global affairs particularly due to their unique ability to create alternative channels for transnational relations. These ties can either be constructively or destructively utilised, a factor dependent on the orientation and interests of Diaspora groups.
Since the turn of the new century, Africa, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa as a region has come a long way with rapidly growing economies of expanding capacities supported by reforms to governance and a widening consumer class. Today, the African continent appears poised to enter into a new phase of development, this phase being driven by the continent’s engagement with new and emerging powers such as India.
The Indian diaspora has been an important factor in India’s relations with African countries. One of the most important aspects of the India-Africa relations is the sizeable presence of the Indian community in East Africa through the widespread migration since the late 19th century. Since then, there is no denying the significant contribution of this community to both the development of the erstwhile colonies and contemporary nation-states in the East African region.
Within the current scope of India-Africa relations and under the diplomatic drive of the new national regime, there seems to be a political desire towards the economic integration of this incredible cultural heritage resource, especially considering the prominence of the Indian Diaspora in African economies, with an established presence across various sectors ranging from mining to telecommunication.
The emergence of diasporic networks post-1990 as a crucial strategic resource has emerged as a point of significant developmental and diplomatic consideration to policy makers and businessmen in both India and Africa. The main challenge for India lies in establishing a sustainable and productive linkage with its Diaspora within the larger context of promoting bilateral relations with African countries.
Linkages between Remittances and Development: A Case Study of India and China
Dr. Arvind Kumar, Professor and Head, Department of Geopolitics and International Relations, Director,Study Abroad Programme, Manipal University,Manipal, India
 
China and India are the most populous countries in the world. China has aging population and the population size of India is much younger. The Indian Diaspora is large in number and spread across the globe. The Chinese Diaspora may be less in number in comparison to Indian Diaspora but are significant in terms of remittances inflow. The Diaspora of both the countries India and China has been playing a significant role in the developmental agenda especially because of the remittances received. The remittances have grown over the decades. Whether one can establish the linkages between the remittances and development remains a major part of the discussion. The migrant labours are sending their income back to their home country in the form pof remittance outflow and it to an extent useful for the development.
The research paper will make a modest attempt in understanding the linkages between the remittances and development. The remittances to developing countries in general and India and China is particular have been increasing. The research paper will assess and analyse the trends and patterns of remittances flow and how it in turn shapes the structure of emerging economies. Undoubtedly, the remittance flows represent the largest source of foreign exchange for numerous countries. Whether the remittances improve the education and health sectors and reduce the poverty and social inequality will also form a major part of the discourse. Such complexities will be understood by taking the case study of India and China on the remittances inflow and whether these are linked with development. 
Transnationalism and the Indian Diaspora in Europe: Emergent Relationships
 
Ms. Bashabi Gupta, Faculty Member, Miranda House, Delhi University, New Delhi, India
 
The rise of the Indian diaspora across the world has been studied intensively in the past decade as a success story of migration and assimilation with the host nations, making it an important soft power for the Indian state.  In Europe, the Indian diaspora today is a mixture of the old and the new migrants. Widespread globalization processes have demanded migration of larger numbers of skilled labour in the world. Located in this matrix is the new Indian diaspora in Europe.
 
It is well researched that amongst the older Indian diaspora in the Europe not all migrants could be classified as skilled labour. They are also distinguished by the fact that their mobility was restricted and they only had access to two locations: their place of origin and the place of their destination. They are essentially citizens of the host country to which they have migrated though the linkages that they have maintained over the years with their homelands and host nations are mutilayered and numerous.
 
The new Indian diaspora in Europe is not restricted to the two aforementioned locations. This may be due to the fact that most comprise a highly skilled labour segment that may or may not have citizenship of any of the host nations’. They are transnational in character as they are situated across different locations, even while maintaining the earlier multilayered and multiple linkages with all their locations. This is a situation where the boundaries and importance of ideas like the nation state get blurred.  This then becomes a contested site of locations and dislocations.
 
Work and skill have emerged to be the determining factors in creating these cross border relations. The analysis of the new Indian diaspora in Europe as a dynamic part of such transnationalisms is the focus of this study. Therefore skilled labour migration of PIOS and NRI’s within and to Europe needs to be studied in all its aspects: social, political cultural economic and religious. Transformations in these spheres when located on a transnational plane will form an integral part of this research. The comparison between the two categories will provide an enhanced understanding of the emergent relationship between transnationalism and the Indian diaspora in Europe.
 
Diaspora Policies of Ethiopia and Kenya for Development Purpose:
A Comparative Assessment
 
Dr. Bijay Ketan Pratihari, Faculty, Academy of International Studies, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
 
The contribution of diaspora to the development of countries of emigration is increasingly receiving attention. This is with regard to huge volume of remittances from diaspora worldwide sharply increased in the past decade. This has resulted in brain gain as records show that migrants are contributing more to the development of their countries of origin. Remittances are emerging as an important source of external development finance (Kapoor, 2003). Globalisation is enabling migrants abroad to remain connected to their native countries. As a result diaspora is now viewed as a resource or extension of state. A paramount factor is that diaspora can contribute to developing their countries of origin through remittances, gifts and even investments.
 
The volume of Kenyan diaspora has increased in past decade. Large communalities of Kenyans are now living in USA, UK and other countries. According to a report Kenyan diaspora constituted around 8 per cent of all Kenyans and many of them are well established in their adopted countries. Kenya has recently experienced a tremendous increase in the volume of remittances. As revenue from traditional exports like tea and coffee dwindled in recent past the inflow of remittances has gained. As result government has been very keen to encourage the diaspora to participate in national development.
 
Ethiopian case is more interesting. Two decades ago Ethiopia was known for despair and instability because of ethnic conflicts. These days, Ethiopia is having a double digit economic progress because of the various policy initiatives including ‘national diaspora policy’. This new policy document called Ethiopian diaspora to participate in the political, economic and social activities of the country so that the country will be benefited from its engagement and contribute to the well being of the country. The draft policy also called for improving engagement in investment in trade and tourism. Generally, the government who prefer to partner with their diaspora for development follow three types of engagement strategies: remittance, diaspora networking and diaspora integration. According to World Bank report Ethiopia is getting around 3.2 billion dollars yearly as remittance from its diaspora. So the contribution from diaspora in the form of remittance is a major contribution to the national economy.
 
The paper will look into the contribution of diasporas of Kenya and Ethiopia in the development of their respective countries.   
 
Diasporas driving development? Examining the developmental impact of policies on the Ethiopian diaspora in the Middle East
 
Bina Fernandez, Lecturer, School of Social and Political Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia
 
For nearly two decades, Ethiopians have been migrating to countries in the Middle East to work as temporary workers. A gendered modality of migration is observable, where women primarily migrate through regular channels, on domestic worker contracts, while men are primarily irregular migrants working in the informal sector as agricultural and construction workers, gardeners and guards. Although accurate figures are unavailable, estimates suggest that the size of the Ethiopian diaspora in the Middle East over 500,000. Notwithstanding the often exploitative and abusive conditions of work faced by Ethiopians in the destination countries, the possibility of their deportation, and the current ban on migration enforced by the Ethiopian government, there is a nevertheless a strong and persistent momentum of migration. This paper draws on longitudinal qualitative field research conducted since 2009 in Ethiopia (in Addis Ababa and the rural regions of OdaDawata and Kormargefia), Lebanon and Kuwait. The paper examines the role, contribution and impact of the policies of Ethiopia and the migrant receiving countries on the Ethiopian diaspora and the prospects for Ethiopian development.
 
Pushing Soft Power through the Diaspora: Indian and Chinese Experiences
 
Dr. Binoda Kumar Mishra, Director,  CSIRD, Kolkata
 
‘Pushing soft power’ is an oxymoron as soft power is generally other-regarding and depends on the intended receiver’s appreciation of the one holding the soft power. But of late, a host of literature is appearing on soft power identifying it as an instrument of national power which a nation-state can use for the attainment of its desired purposes. On the other hand, there is a continuing debate on the utility of diaspora for the home nation. There are umpteen examples of diaspora playing an active role in destabilising the home nation-state as there are examples of diaspora playing a constructive role in building the home nation or nation-state. Two important countries that are attracting renewed global interest are India and China. If not established yet, unmistakably both are aspiring great powers and are showing most of the characteristics of powers to be reckoned with. Both India and China have long tales to tell about their respective diasporas. There is an uncanny similarity in their experiences of engagement with their diasporas. Both India and China have a part of diaspora that is troubling. But both have expressed their commitment to engage with the diaspora as agents of homeland development. In the 21st century, when both India and China are vying for their preferred status among the comity of nations, there seems to be a fair amount of reliance on their soft power. Being ancient civilizations and vast diversities, both India and China, lay claim to the status of super power in soft power calculations.
 
In this context the paper proposes to discuss that the concept of soft power and its utility is increasing the acceptability of a nation-state (India and China in this context). Secondly, the current level of engagement of India and China with their respective diasporas will be discussed in reference to both using the diaspora as an agent of the homeland’s soft power. A comparison would be made between the Indian and Chinese experiences to find out the reasons for the effectiveness or the lack of it inspreading their homeland’s soft power at the global stage.
 
Reaching out to Diaspora for Development: Some Reflections on the Indian Approach
 
Prof. Chandrashekhar Bhat, Professor of Sociology and Founder Director, Centre for the Study of Indian Diaspora, University of Hyderabad, India
                       
The objective of this paper is to examine the recent initiatives of the Indian state to bring closer her alienated diaspora into the mainstream with the view to partner with the diaspora for nation building. The paper outlines briefly the contexts of international migration and settlement of immigrants leading to the formation of diasporas during the 19th and 20th centuries. The 21th century is marked by a new paradigm of globalization miniaturizing space and time with the advent of far-reaching changes in technologies of transport and communication. Diasporas, with imaginary or real bonds with their motherlands, are emerging as significant players in shaping dynamics of international relations not just between the countries of immigration and homelands but span the nation-states globally wherever diasporas are dispersed.
 
The paper further reviews the ubiquitous nature of contemporary international migration in this era of globalization wherein the ability of nation-state to control immigration has shrunk though the desire to do so has increased. Borders are largely beyond control and little can be done to really cut down on immigration (Bhagawati 2004). Robin Cohen (1997) is tempted to use the term diasporization as a concept akin to globalization for the two are inseparably enmeshed. Though not the same, they mutually reinforce each other.
 
While Armenia, China and Israel, for instance, have been pursuing their diasporas for decades for their mutual advancement, India has initiated her dialogue with her diaspora only with the ushering in of the New Millennium.The paper reflects data from Pravasi Bharatiya Divas celebrations for nearly a decade to examine the way India is moving beyond India to harness her diaspora resources and is facilitating advancement of mutual interests globally.
 
Reflections on Female Migration and Diasporic Disposition: The Case of Middle East
Dr. Dolly Sunny, Professor of Economics, University of Mumbai, & Hon. Director, ICSSR-Western Region, Mumbai, India
 
Migration of skilled workers including women is of great contemporary relevance from the sociological, political and economic points of view. While the earlier theories on migration concentrated on the push-pull theory, the current  views deviate from it. While family reunion provides the impetus for spouses migrating to developed countries like the United States and South Africa, migration to Middle East is overwhelmingly in search of employment.
The economies of Middle East are attempting  to integrate with the rest of the world in keeping with the trends of globalisation. Labour in Middle East  constitutes a wide range of sectors that   includes categories like industrial labour, organised labour, labour in the informal sector, peasantry, migrant labour, daily wagers and  women labour. In the recently concluded Labour Force Survey a number of labour force characteristics can be found in terms of employment, under-employment and unemployment with respect to various demographic features that include sex, education, age, region, occupation and sector of employment. It divulges that there is a significant variation between men and women in terms of engagement in economic activities. Though more   labour from the formal sector and migration are at an increase,  women have become an integral part of the informal labour sector.  The paper throws light  on the pertinent aspects related to the migration of females from India to Middle East for securing job.
Self-organisation of Tamils in Germany and their contribution to general development
 
Iris Rajanayagam, History and African Studies, Humboldt University,Berlin, Germany
 
Tamils have come to Germany and world-wide as asylum seekers from the 80 until the late 90s. While in Anglo-Saxon countries they could rely on a social and economic network of relatives and friends to find a foot-hold in the host countries, in Germany they had to largely fight for themselves to find a place in the host society. My paper will focus on this group and discuss their contribution to German and thus global development. I shall discuss five topics:
1) the self-organisation of Tamils within the context of general self-organisation of migrants in Germany for advice and support
2) the professional and educational efforts of the Tamils in Germany in the light of their initially isolated position in the host society
3) the professional and educational success of the second and third generation of Tamil migrants in Germany especially in comparison to the comparatively low economic and occupational status of the parent generation
4) the measure of integration(?) of Tamils into the host society with simultaneous maintenance of their social and cultural networks
5) the networking of Tamils with other South Asian groups working in Germany especially in the IT sector.
6) the global networking of Tamils within Europe and world-wide.
In conclusion I shall discuss what the efforts and successes of the Tamils in Germany may mean for a post-modern and post-colonial society here and globally.
 
Role of Indian Diaspora in Mozambique’s Development
 
Dr. J. M. Moosa, CAS-SIS, JNU New Delhi, India
 
The emergence of Diaspora as a possible resource in different spheres has significantly expanded as a consequence of the enabling conditions provided by globalization. Especially in the context of the development challenges that are faced by both the host and mother countries, the Diaspora can act as a link for networking. Success stories of contribution of Diaspora and the recognition of the UN as a developmental resource has led to a series of policy initiatives in both Diaspora sending as well as Diaspora receiving countries. Indian Ocean served as common and vibrant link for commerce and exchange amongst the different littoral countries for ages much before the advent of European domination. The arrival Vasco da Gama and Portugal ascendance in the region resulted in enhanced interaction between different Portuguese controlled territories. As a consequence large number of people from Goa migrated to Mozambique and other territories where they soon established themselves into a successful and dynamic community. In the post independence era while some Goans moved on to Portugal, others choose to remain back in Mozambique. They continue to remain a vibrant community with linkages spanning across Africa, Europe and India. Similarly the Ismaili Khoja community utilised the opportunity provided by British expansion and domination of the region to spread across in different waves and settle down in different countries. Some of them also settled in Mozambique. In the post independence era as a consequence of different rounds of migration and cyclic movements these communities have transformed themselves into a transnational community with linkages spanning from Brazil and Europe all the way across to Africa and India. This gives them a unique opportunity to act a bridge epically in the context of a more energetic Indian engagement with Africa. The paper proposes to study the migration and the role of Indian Diaspora in Mozambique's development.
 
Malagasy Diaspora’s commitment policy
Jeannie Rafalimanan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,Madagascar
 
As International migration is always among World breaking news, Madagascar has also recorded many of its citizens abroad. The bad sides of their life in others’ land where respects of human rights whithin migration have to be claimed, drew mostly our attention.
Furthermore, conscious of the benefits of international migration for the country’s economy, we have adopted the mainstreaming concept of the Diaspora in our policy for their contribution to the country socio-economic development.
The Government acknowledges malagasy diaspora’s weight in the country life and begins to harness them as one of lever for Madagascar’s development. In order to improve assistance and connection, to better coordinate stakeholders actions in this perspective, a Directorate General for economic promotion and Diaspora has been established within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2015. This Directorate General has under its supervision the Directorate of Diaspora which is responsible for diaspora mobilization for their full participation to the sustainable development of their home country. As it is still at an embryonary phase, diaspora mapping, rebuilding trust and developping a national policy for diaspora commitment are among its short-term priority. The latter will set a better environment and a long-term strategy in favor of investment, financial and social remittances from the diaspora. A way to reverse the concept of brain drain into brain gain.
International cooperation is very important  for us to have a well managed migration and get wide-ranging benefit for the diasporic people and both host and origin countries.
Complicating the Narrative of Hindu American Activism: The Case of the Hindu American Foundation
 
Prof. Jeffery D. Long, Religion and Asian Studies,Elizabethtown College,Pennsylvania, USA
 
Popular perceptions of Hindu American activism have tended to focus upon the synergy between the activities of Diaspora Hindus and the agenda of Hindu nationalist groups in India, such that, for example, Hindu American activism focused on the revision of school textbook depictions of Hinduism is seen as an extension of movements to revise Indian textbook depictions of ancient and medieval Indian history.  At the same time, as scholars such as PremaKurien have noted, Hindu American activism can also be placed in a long lineage of activism by immigrant groups throughout the history of the United States who have sought, in her words, “a place at the multicultural table.”  A focus on the Hindutva-Diaspora Hindu nexus, while not entirely misplaced, is complicated by the fact that while Hindu activism in the Indian context is a majoritarian phenomenon, Hindu American activism is precisely the opposite: an effort by a minority community to be recognized by the majority and afforded the same dignity in civil society for which previous generations of immigrants have fought.  The focus of this paper will be the activism of the Hindu American Foundation, some of which could be characterized as being in alignment with the aims and agenda of the Hindutva movement, but some of which is quite distinct from, and in some cases, such as in its advocacy for marriage equality, even opposed to this ideology, being more in alignment with the wider progressive movement in the United States.  The paper will draw upon previous research on this topic by other scholars, but also upon the author’s experiences as a consultant for the Hindu American Foundation on a variety of issues.
 
Return Migration of the Indian Diaspora: The Relationship between Gender and Self-Silencing in Narratives of Coming Home
 
Ms. Jenna Sikka, Sociology Department, Syracuse University, New York, USA
 
The past decade has seen a significant trend: the return of many well-settled, first- generation American citizens of Indian background to India. What is prompting this move? While there have been some ethnographic accounts of Indians returning home, what remains unclear is men and women’s individual motivations for the move, and how processes of adjustment and resettlement in India are mitigated through gender. Return migration scholars posit that women perceive return to their home countries to be a threat to their newfound freedom in Western countries, while men are eager to return to a context where their patriarchal power is supported. However, my research with returnees in the city of Vadodara, Gujarat, shows that men do not welcome the idea of return to India, whereas women welcome the chance to go back to their home country. Through an ethnographic study that includes in-depth qualitative interviewing with husband-wife pairs in Gujarat, India, I discover that: (1) women respondents were often happier with their decision to move back to India; (2) they also seem to seamlessly readjust to life in India, not having as many difficulties in resettlement as their husbands; (3) the Indian setting encourages the expression of women’s emotional self and benefits their personal development and their identity; (4) male returnees, on the other hand, find many ‘structural’ roadblocks to adjustment to life in their country of origin; and (5) men do not perceive India as being beneficial to their personal development. I explain these research findings within the Self-Silencing theoretical framework and well as the South Asian feminist conceptions of agency. While many studies on return migration have focused on women’s reluctance to move back to the country of origin, I will attempt to answer why the assumption that moving back curtails women’s freedom may not apply to the Indian case of return migration. Apart from making unique contributions to the theoretical debate in the area of immigrant return migration, my research also has the potential to assist policy makers in attracting a greater number of returnees to India through the promise of assisted reintegration. These are endeavors that will mutually benefit the Government of India, Indian returnees wanting to reintegrate, as well as the Indian society at large.
 
A Study on the Research Trends and Tasks of Diaspora Media in South Korea
Prof. Joo Chungmin, Dept of Communication, Chonnam National University, Korea, & Mr. Rabbani Md Golam, Graduate Student, Department of Global Diaspora Studies Chonnam National University, Korea
 
In South Korea, researches on diaspora mainly focus on Korean people living overseas or on foreign migrants living in the nation. As diaspora researches have recently been active in the nation, there are also active researches on their media activities and uses. This study thus analyzed the content of concerned papers published in journal to figure out how researches on diaspora media had been conducted in the nation for the last ten years. The study examined the research trends, limitations, and future directions of diaspora media. The findings show that the activities were categorized into production activities including the publication of diaspora media, distribution activities for the content of diaspora media, and utilization activities for diaspora media. The researches mainly focused on the production activities of Korean people living overseas such as media publication. Considering the trend of increasing foreign migrants in South Korea in recent years, the study discovered a need to activate researches on the utilization activities of diaspora media including the media usage of foreign migrants living in the nation.
Tapping Diaspora Resource: A New Development Strategy
Dr. Jyoti Tyagi, Research Fellow Policy Research Institute of African Studies, Association of India (PRIASA), New Delhi
 
Diasporas have become an increasingly important feature of the development lexicon over the last decade, which is consequence of the way the policy debate on the ‘migration-development nexus’ has evolved. A lot of research has been conducted on the topic of migration over last several years that point towards a shift in the discussion from seeing the emigration of skilled people as a loss, to seeing skilled migration as an opportunity to get remittances, trade, investment projects, and new knowledge. China, India, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan are examples of economies that have tapped into their diaspora as a source of knowledge. In addition, there has been a new emphasis on including both skilled and unskilled migrants as contributors to host and home countries development.In recent years the voluntary contributions or remittances from the diaspora to their countries of origin have often been higher than the aid monies given to these countries. It is now increasingly recognised that the diaspora may have an active role to play in the development process of their countries of origin. They are not only a source of funds; they are also a rich source of skills and know-how. This paper will analyse the potential of the diaspora as agents of change in their countries of origin.This works will bring relevant experience from both developed and developing countries to bear on issues confronting todays government in linking with their diaspora. The article will present different approaches used by countries that have tried to maximise the gains from migration by engaging more comprehensively with different diaspora groups and individuals. The article will finish by raising some critical issues in relation to this development strategy.
Transnational Care for Left-Behind Aged Parents Living in Uzbekistan- A case of Koryein Migrants in Korea
Prof. Kyung hak kim, Chonnam National University, Korea & Mr. Parpiyev Syrym Graduate Student,  Department of Global Diaspora Studies,Chonnam National University, Korea
 
This study aims at exploring transnational care for left-behind aged parents living in Uzbekistan with particular reference to 'Uzbek Koryein'(Korean ethnic group in Uzbekistan) migrants in Korea. The post-Soviet Union mass emigration of 'Uzbek Koryein' takes place mainly due to harsh conditions like economic hardship and Uzbek ethno-religious nationalism. The aged parents of members of transnational 'Uzbek Koryein' families can remain in need of help and care when their adult children migrate to Korea. Most 'Uzbek Koryein' migrants in Korea maintain their transnational family ties with their left behind older family members on the bases of some transnational care practices like remittances, virtual intimacy through ICTs(information and telecommunications technologies), and visit to homeland.
Because of the Uzbekistan's longstanding economic deterioration, migration has become an essential livelihood strategy among many 'Uzbek Koryein' families. The monetary remittances of 'Uzbek Koryein' in Korea highly contribute to the wellbeing of their older members in terms of medical treatment and promotion of living standard. This study argues that ICTs allow adult children to connect virtually to their aged parents instead of geographical proximity. 'Uzbek Koryein' transnational family members overcome geographical distance and strengthen their belonging and emotional support through utilization of ICTs. In spite of an immense expenditure of money on travel to Uzbekistan, many 'Uzbek Koryeins' try to visit to their older members as a kind of care practices. This study clearly shows that aforementioned transnational care practices become pivotal how transnational 'Uzbek Koryein' families maintain their sense of belonging to each other and unity, even across borders between Korea and Uzbekistan.
Strategic Resource for Emerging India: Cultural Diplomacy and Diaspora
Dr. Liyaqat Khan, Dept. of Civics and Politics, University of Mumbai,Mumbai, India
 
The last many decades, several scholars and analysts have tried to weigh up India’s emergence as a major player in the international arena by looking at such material indicators as economic growth, military expansion or demographic evolution. Cultural Diplomacy and Diaspora are dynamic concept. India had the most advantage with “Gandhi’s Ahimsa and Nehru’s Nonaligned” at the centre stage of the Indian diplomacy. As an outcome, these accounts have mainly ignored New Delhi’s increased emphasis on developing its ‘Strategic resource’ credentials by using the attractiveness of Indian culture, values and policies. Indian scholars and diplomats have been arguing that if India is now perceived as an Emerging power, it was not just through trade and politics but also through its ability to share its Diaspora, culture with the world through food, music, technology and Bollywood. However, it is difficult to determine India’s actual strategic resources, or which of these resources have actually helped strengthen India’s global status. With such a difficult concept to classify and appraise, is it possible to monitor the evolution of India’s soft power over the last decade? The scholar will try to bring ideas of diaspora’s, Cultural diplomacy and its effectiveness. Most saliently, can we evaluate India’s effort
Diaspora and Development: A Case Study on the State of Punjab (India)
 
Amb. Paramjit Sahai, Former Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs,Government of India
 
The Paper would be a case study on the State of Punjab in India and look at the central issue of ‘Diaspora and Development’ in this State. This would be viewed in the context of the key preposition, whether Diaspora has to be harnessed or such involvement is the automatic flow from increasing diaspora engagement? How does India attract its diaspora towards development, vis-a-vis other countries or why is diaspora drawn towards development?
Do we see Diaspora  participation in infrastructure projects, involving financial commitment or is it also visible in ‘Societal Projects’, leading to the transformation of society through investment of social capital, by injecting values of the host state? Does diaspora get involved in knowledge transfer, given the emergence of global K-society, and thus helping the Modi government to fulfil its Skills Development Mission, aimed at India encashing the so called demographic dividend?
How have the above issues played out in the case of the State of Punjab? Does the government play a pro-active role, in terms of policy and other incentives or is it a mute spectator? Does it follow an omnibus policy or is it directed at those countries with predominant Punjabi diaspora? Is the available infrastructure diaspora-friendly to harness their involvement? How has diaspora responded? Has it followed the individual or group route through Self Help Groups (SHGs)? Has it adopted a collaborative or competitive approach? What are focus areas and preferred regions and how has this impacted on the development process?
How has Diaspora participation been received at the community level? What is the nature and level of community participation or is it government driven? Are there any success stories to celebrate or lessons to be learnt from past failures? Based on these research findings and drawing upon experience of other countries, an attempt would be made to draw up a template, to further promote involvement of Diaspora in Development.
Diaspora Identities and Values: Complexities in Development Initiatives
 
Mr. Pheroze Nowrojee, Co-Chair, Asian African Heritage Trust, Nairobi, Kenya
 
Diaspora communities account for over 25 million individuals, span the nationals of over 100 countries, and reflect more than 100 pasts over a period of 200 years. Diaspora connections are thus a complex exercise. Reliance by India simply on the diaspora’s origin is a simplistic approach.
 
New connections cannot be based on expectations of shared political loyalties. The diaspora has other political loyalties. New connections may originate in the fact of Indian origins, but to last they must be rooted in, and satisfy also, the other and pre-eminent political loyalties of the diasporans.
 
It is commonly posited that the Indian diaspora has retained the values of its land of origin: see the UNESCO citation for the World Heritage Site in Port Louis, Mauritius, celebrating the Indian Indentured Labourers, the principal progenitors of the world wide diaspora. It is these memories, traditions and values which need to be embodied in development relations between India and the diaspora communities and the diaspora countries.  
 
But now there is more in the disaporan communities. After close to 200 years they have a new, and different, social identity, born partly of their country of settlement and partly of India.
 
The above identities and values must be kept in mind in policy and contractual deliberations. Developmental connections between India and its diaspora are best sustained, when they are based on cultural values shared three-ways between India, the diaspora community and the nation in which the particular diaspora community is settled. 
 
Diaspora formation and the significance of varities of forced, indentured, migrant and contract labour for economic and political development in South Africa from colonialism to post-apartheid
 
Prof. Preben Kaarsholam, Department of Society and Globalisation,Roskilde University, Denmark
 
Growth and development in South Africa have been characterised to an exceptional degree by a dependence on different types of imported labour and labour mobility as well as by political, cultural and racial differentiation. This was true in the early stages of capitalist development in the nineteenth century, when different kinds of unfree labour were brought in to make up for shortages in or put pressure on the cost of local labour supply. In the process signicant both African and Indian diaspora communities were established on the basis of the importation of indentured and migrant labour for the plantation and mining enterprises.
 
Diaspora grouping developed different types of political identities and strategies within the South African context and established different claims for themselves in terms of residence, citizenship and belonging. While some diaspora groupings would emphasise their specificities as a cultural and political entity, and develop their claims to citizenship and belonging on the basis of this, the strategies of other groupswould be directed more towards assimilation and melting into existing South African group identities. The success and relevance of such different strategies would fluctuate over time, and would involve different patterns also of continued interaction or loss of contact with the respective homelands, from where the diasporas originated.
 
The multiculturalism resulting from a development dependent on labour mobility became the foundation for racial and political segregration under both colonialism and apartheid, and has been important challenge for the development of a post-apartheid 'rainbow' democracy after the political transition of 1994. At the same time, the period after 1994 had been characterised by a massive new immigration from both Africa and Asia and the formation of new diapora identities that are quite different from the ones that have been prominent historically. This has gone hand-in-hand with the emergene of new forms of transnational capitalism undermining old structures of economic organisation, and involving the recruitment also of new varities of contracted, short- and long-term labour mobility.
 
The paper will discuss the implications of such changes in mobile labour recruitment and diaspora formation for economic development and political stability in South Africa, as well as their implications for the development of new forms of multicultural democracy and notions of transnational citizenship.
 
Diaspora as Strategic Assets: A Comparative analysis of the Indian and Chinese Attitudes
Dr. Rup Narayan Das, Director,Research and Information Division, Lok Sabha Secretariat,Parliament Library House, Parliament House, New Delhi, India
 
The increasing attention and focus on studying the problems and potential of the expatriate population by the home countries can be attributed to a number of factors, the most important being the irreversible and unstoppable process of globalization, breaking the physical and emotional barriers of nation states. Now the world is witnessing not only the free movement of goods and services, but also the movement of people and ideas. Although migration is not entirely a new phenomenon, integration of the world economy has also brought to the fore the socio, economic and political issues, having a bearing on migration and reverse migration.  While it is essential to address these issues carefully, it is equally important to harness the prowess and potential of the expatriate population as a strategic asset in the economic, social and educational development of the home country. 
Yet another important aspect of the potential pertains to their increasing importance as what is called ‘non-state actors’ and their role and clout in influencing States’ and Governments’ policies of the countries of their adoption.  As diaspora are mainly non-state actors, they have to be viewed not only as minorities in the host countries, but also as important entities vis-à-vis their home countries.
It is in this context that in the proposed paper, an attempt is made to make a comparative study of the attitude, and policies of India and China with regard to, their ethnic populations abroad.  Although comparison are not always apt as there are dissimilarities and incongruities, for better treatment of the subject, this paper  attempts to put in perspective the evolution of the policies of the respective governments towards their ethnic population abroad.
From Plantations to Parliament: The Role of the Indians/The Indian Diaspora in the development of Trinidad and Tobago, 1845- Present
 
Dr. Radica Mahase, Senior Lecturer,History, Culture, Heritage and Society,Trinidad and Tobago
 
The first shipload of Indian indentured labourers arrived in Trinidad on 30 May 1845 and until 1917, there was an almost continuous emigration of labourers from India to Trinidad, under the Indian indentureship system. In 1917, the recruitment of indentured labourers was prohibited by law, and by 01 January 1920, all contractual obligations were terminated and the system ceased to exist. For the duration of the indentureship period, approximately 147,600 Indians migrated to Trinidad where they worked mainly (though not solely) on the sugar cane plantations. By the end of indentureship only about 25% of all the labourers who arrived in Trinidad, were repatriated to their homeland, India. Some were forced to stay and make Trinidad their home because of the inadequacies of colonial repatriation policies while the majority chose to remain in the colony.
This paper examines the contribution of those Indians who stayed and their descendents, to the development of Trinidad and Tobago. It focuses on the economic, socio-cultural and political contribution of an ethnic group that was transplanted from traditional villages and districts and placed in an already multi-ethnic, rapidly evolving colony. During the indentureship period, 1845 to 1920, Indians and their descendents were instrumental in the economic development of the colony. They played a very important role in the revival of the sugar cane industry, in diversification of crops, in the establishment of Indian traditional crafts, the introduction of saving banks and so on. In the post-indentureship period, 1920 until independence in 1960, there was the emergence of an Indian middle class which entered the professional fields, was actively engaged in political participation and highly involved in socio-cultural activities. Since independence this Indian Diaspora has entrenched itself in every aspect of life in Trinidad and Tobago. It dominates the professional fields, plays an intense role in the country’s political life and is visible in every minute aspect of socio-cultural life.
Reaching out to the diaspora to enhance development in Mauritius
 
Dr. Ramola Ramtohul, Senior Lecturer in Sociology and Gender Studies,Department of Social Studies,University of Mauritius, Mauritius
 
Mauritius is a nation of migrants. Its population is entirely composed of descendants of migrants who came to the island for different purposes. While the French came as settlers, Africans were brought as slaves during French colonial rule. Indians and Chinese came as indentured workers and merchants and traders under British rule. As a result of the different waves of migration, the Mauritian population is a multicultural and multiethnic one, where most population groups have retained strong ties with their ancestral homeland, language and culture. The population, currently at 1.3 million, is estimated to be composed of six ‘ethnic communities’[1]. At the time of independence, due to the numerical dominance of the Hindus, minority communities feared a situation of annexation of the country with India the loss of their rights and nationalization of their assets. The poor state of the economy also contributed to the fear, resulting in significant emigration especially from minority communities to Australia, the UK and South Africa. However, following independence, the Mauritian economy, which was initially totally dependent on the sugar industry, was diversified and new economic avenues successfully explored. Yet, the smallness of the country and perception of limited career opportunities by the youth has led to a brain drain of talented young Mauritians towards the West. In an effort to harness the lost talent represented by the Mauritian diaspora and also to enhance investment into the country by the diaspora, the Minister of Finance in the last budget, introduced a new package of incentives geared towards encouraging and facilitating the return of Mauritians settled overseas and harness their contribution to the homeland. This paper will explore the implications of such a scheme and the potential contribution of the diaspora towards development of the country.
Key role of India diaspora in development of Reunion Island
Jean Regis- Ramsamy  ODI Reunion, Former President,Reunion
 
The ROI, Reunionese of Indian Origin has left an indelible mark on the development of Reunion Island. Sugar cane was the main reason for the arrival of an intensive Indian labour force. In a near future, we’ll come back on one of the questions which some historians asked, « Have the Indians saved the economy of Reunion Island?». The issue at hands is about some arguments which reflect the contribution of India in this ancient colony. We take the risk of unwinding a collection of real facts. They deserve a longer reflection. At Barachois, a main square in the centre of Réunion Island, there is the statue of famous Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais, having in one hand the treaty of occupation of Madras. Much could be said about this great man and his battles in India. BF M. de La Bourdonnais was also governor of the sister islands of Reunion and Mauritius (also named Ile de France). The name of the Tamil capital is raised in a symbolic place. This chapter briefly reminds us that in the 18th century, a hundred of Creoles Volunteers was sent to fight for India.
In this period of the history of the island, in between the Free Creoles and slaves there was another category. The coloured Free people had among their ranks a certain number of Indians. Some of the wealthy ones owned slaves. At the time when the colony has to be build, craftsmen from the South were solicited. They brought their old techniques, such as the argamaste, old process which replaced cement in buildings. Even today some old walls bears some parts built from the argamasse. The old Creole houses were built in the Pondicherry style. Directors and other officials of the East India Company, working in that town, found themselves in the colony. They participated little by little in the evolution of the local architecture.
The history of indentured worker through sugarcane is widely known in the four overseas departments. The island has tried other crops like coffee, cloves etc. There was also an attempt to produce silk. In 1841, seven years before the abolition of slavery, in a report published on the progress of the company of Mr. Perichon at Salazie: “The silks spun at Mr. Carré of Salazie, by a Malabar, were estimated in Lyon at the rate of 50.55 and 60 francs per kilo. 4 professional spinners were especially from India, of whom are Lagime, Soubany, Hall, Scheck. « At the same period, Victor Robin of St. Pierre established at his place named Terre Rouge a silkworm farm and 2 spinning tools to work according to the Indian process.
In 1882, Indian immigration was stopped. It coincides with the opening of the railway line in Reunion Island. A Titanous task was necessary for its advent. Indian workers have contributed, and some lost their lives. Wherever he goes the Indians marked their presence by building religious places. In 2007 the Tamil temple of Casernes (Saint Pierre) has been classified as historical monuments.
Besides its old building , around 1877 the old wall building has on its main facade a few bits of Tamil language , probably indicating the site name (the goddess Sakti Mariamman) , as well as the names of his benefactors . Fragments in Tamil Language were located in various parts of the island. Creole language itself is full of many words in Tamil and Hindi. We’ll mention for this Dravidian language, Rougail , Tangol , Ajoupa, langouti … and in Hindi ( Kabay , clothing) , dig- dig, amaré …
In terms of ideas and poetry, we can argue that Célimène, the famous muse of Reunion Island, who lived in the late 18th century, was born of a Bengali mother origin. Moreover Fanny, the mother of the poet Lacaussade owned two slaves of whom one is a Bengali . On his side, the poet Leconte de Lisle narrated his love for India through The Manchy , where he talked about the Telenga workers ( Telugus , workers from Andhra Pradesh ) . Finally during a quick visit to the colony, Baudelaire was caught under the spell of Indian ladies which he recalled through his “Fleurs du Mal” with « The Malabaraise  » ( 1840) . We temporarily conclude this review of the presence (by the action and the verb ) of Indians in Reunion , with the entry of the word curry (or kari ) in the Larousse Dictionary (2016 ) .
Development Contributions of the Indian Diaspora: A Reflection on the Caribbean and Canada
 
Dr. M. Raymond Izarali,Department of Criminology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada
 
The era of Indian indentureship to the Caribbean and the continued migration of Indians to Canada have given rise to major social, economic, and cultural diasporic growth in these so-called “host societies.”  Places like Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, and Suriname have sizable Indian populations that, while having evolved particular identities of their own, still strongly identify in many ways with their Indian lineage.   Their participation in socio-economic life and their contributions to development in their country of abode are self-evident.  Indians in such Caribbean settings, for example, have played a vital role in national commercial and economic prosperity, underscoring a progressive evolution since the time of plantation life as indentured servants. This development has in part been driven by an emphasis on education for their offspring, and cemented in their entrepreneurial undertakings in various spheres of agriculture with the acquisition of land.  
A somewhat similar narrative could be articulated for the Indian diaspora in Canada.  While migration from India to Canada is still ongoing, it is significant that this journeying dates back at least 100 years and has had some especially symbolic moments with the arrival of the Komagata Maru vessel in 1914 in British Columbia. Indians in Canada are prominently noted by their visible presence, progress, and socio-political engagement in both diasporic and Canadian development.  Put simply, people of Indian origins are notably evident in academia, as members of parliament and cabinet ministers, as police officers, practitioners in the medical sciences and legal profession, and in various forms of entrepreneurship. Significantly, the current minister of national defense in Canada is a turban-wearing gentleman who has served in the Canadian military, thus signifying embracement of cultural roots and participation in key areas of national development and social life in Canada.  Interestingly as well, the Indian diaspora in Canada plays a key role in development in India through trade in cultural materials, direct investments, and remittances, and foster ever-expanding Canada-India trade relations through the Indo-Canadian Chamber of Commerce (ICCC) and government relations.  This is significant given India’s stature on the world stage. From this standpoint, the Indian diaspora has had a profound role in cementing its identity in social life and, equally, in contributing to key areas of development in the social fabric of Canada.
Surely, any narrative on diaspora must acknowledge the “push” and “pull” factors that lead to migration and diaspora formations – among them, issues of oppression, cultural marginalization, human rights, corruption, economic opportunities, access to justice, and elements of social harm.  But it must also feature the successes that have evolved from early periods of sacrifice made by the first-generation and the vital contributions to development in the society in which they have started life anew. Such is the objective is paper. It provides some reflection on causal antecedents that have given rise to migration from India and diaspora formations, the salient contributions to development made by the Indian diaspora in Caribbean and Canadian settings, and the image and strength these elements pave for India as a major actor on the world stage in this age of globalization.
Relations between the indentured diaspora and indigenous communities in Fiji and South Africa and its impact on outward migration
 
Dr. Movindri Reddy,  Associate Professor, Diplomacy and World Affairs,Occidental College,CA, USA
 
Theoretical perspectives on Diasporas tend to emphasize the host-home trope, the idea that Diasporas are defined by their dual citizenships, national identities, and divided loyalties. Relying on my thesis that Diasporas inhabit a transnational locality, a space that encapsulates both their indigenization and transnationality, I argue that this placement (by states and citizens) exacerbates their outsider status and can lead to relations of tensions and conflict with indigenous communities. State structures contribute towards this labeling and hence towards increasing outward migration. South African Indians and Indo-Fijians have had tensed relations with Zulus and indigenous Fijians respectively; migration to other parts of the country and abroad have become mechanisms to cope with political, economic and security challenges. Both countries have attempted to address the structural power of indigenous chiefs, and both have been successful. Has this stemmed the migration of Indians? This paper will interrogate these questions from a theoretical and empirical basis.
 
Role of Indian Diaspora in the Development of Madagascar and Seychelles in the age of Globalization: A Comparative Study
Prof. S. N. Malakar, CAS-SIS, JNU,  New Delhi, India
 
With the advent of globalization Seychelles and Madagascar have opened up their  economies to foreign market. The closed economies of both Seychelles and Madagascar opened up to reformist privatization with their economies opening up to foreign capital. Previously both the countries swore by strict nationalization policies but later the adoption of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAP) paved way for economic reforms which was meant to both regulate the market economy and also to make the atmosphere conducive for a free market economy. Herein, the Indian diaspora was given ample preference to regulate the market economy through privatization.
In both Madagascar and Seychelles Indian diaspora are in sufficient numbers. They share a sizeable portion of GDP in both the countries. While in Seychelles they are involved in retail and construction business, in Madagascar they are involved in the trading of gold, hotel business, building and retail sector. Since the Indian community has a sizeable control over the economy of both the countries they have managed to give constructive inputs to the economic development in both the countries post globalzation.
In Seychelles, out of a population of 90,000 Indians constitute 6%. Generally it is understood that they are 6000 in number. The Indian community in Seychelles consist of mostly Gujaratis and Tamils with the former involved in construction and building sector and the latter controlling the retail sector. In Madagascar they are about 20,000 and are mostly Muslims, Sindhis, Boras and Suratiyas. Out of 20,000 of Indian community, 2000 are Hindus and 18,000 are Muslms. Muslims are mostly involved in hotel, retail and infrastructure development. In the age of globalization 40-50% of Madgascar’s economy is dominated by the Indian diaspora and in the case of Seychelles it is 25-40%. In both these countries the Indian communities are getting more opportunities in articulating the economy for accelerating developmental processes.
This paper will deal with Indian settlement and their historical control of economic structure in both Seychelles and Madagascar. The paper will also discuss the new opportunities for Indian communities to involve more in the developmental works of both Madagascar and Seychelles which will strengthen the development paradigm in both the countries.
The Pull Factor of an Indian Passport: Indian Nationality as a consideration for Indian Diaspora migration choices
 
Dr. Saeed Ahmed Khan, Department of Classical & Modern Languages, Literatures and Cultures, Wayne State University, Detroit, USA
 
While conventional modalities of citizenship confer nationality upon an individual in a particular locus of residence as a function of birth or duration of domicile, several states disallow such qualification. Members of diaspora communities in these states often maintain the nationality of their parents, irrespective either of their own place of birth or level of engagement with their “home” country. In the event of migration, however, “repatriation” to the country of nationality is not always presumptive, despite the obvious eligibility and ease of such migration. Factors such as national, cultural, ethnic or religious identity, family connections or frequency of travel to the “home” country, although relevant to the individual’s decision-making, may not be sufficient “pull” factors to draw the Indian citizen “back” to India, leaving other destinations available for greater consideration.
 
This paper examines the experience of Indian passport holders living in the diaspora who must leave their country of residence, and the migration calculus they employ in selecting a destination. The subject of this study is the community of second and third generation Indians living in the United Arab Emirates, who, despite being born and having lived their entire lives in that country are ineligible for local citizenship. It will also explore the process and factors influencing diaspora members in selecting destinations beyond the facility offered through Indian citizenship. Finally, this paper will furnish policy recommendations to facilitate and encourage repatriation for Indian diaspora members facing remigration.
 
The Indian Diaspora: Emergence of a New Caste System
 
Prof. Sanjay Lodha, Department of Political Science, MLS University,Udaipur, Rajasthan, India & Ms. Nidhi Jain, Department of Political Science, MLS University,Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
 
In the era of globalization, diaspora community is being looked upon as a rich source of foreign exchange, knowledge, technical prowess and also as potential source of political support. Foremost among the various diaspora communities has been the sizable presence of the Chinese diaspora in the advanced north. The contribution of this community to the development of the mainland China is recognized in all quarters. Similarly, there is a deep appreciation of the diaspora of the far eastern countries. Not to be left behind, Indian diaspora has received significant attention, particularly so in the last decade. The community, which has been growing in its size, has been studied from a number of perspectives focusing on issues of economic benefits, socio-cultural assimilation, history of immigration etc. It was indeed the potential of the Indian diaspora towards the development of the mother country that successive governments in India have sought to focus their attention on this community through a host of concrete policy measures.
Notwithstanding the actual and potential contribution of the Indian diaspora, a perception is growing that the shoddy and visibly discriminatory handling of this community by the political establishment in India has actually led to the creation of a new caste system within the diaspora. One can easily discern such a wedge appearing between two ‘waves’ of people who have left the Indian shores to earn their livelihood in distant lands. On the one hand are those who left their homeland in the 19th century as plantation workers and indentured labour, mostly to different parts of Africa and West Indies. Settled in countries of the Global South, these people of Indian origin faced the worst of times in their ‘new homes’ confronting multi-level discrimination and oppression of different sorts. They still suffer from lack of assimilation in their home as well as host countries. Their connectivity with ‘mother India’ is also thin. Collectively, this community is described as the ‘old diaspora’. On the other hand are those who left India after the middle of the 20th century. These are people who were the early beneficiaries of the process of development in independent India and their departure from India was famously described as ‘brain drain’. Many of these were professionals who made their fortunes in the countries of the affluent north earning quick recognition as the professional elites. This community maintained a strong bonding with their native lands by way of family ties and considerable remittances. It is commonly believed that it is this second wave of migrants which has caught the fancy of the political establishment in India because of their influence in their host country as well as the credibility which they retain in their home country. Many of the much-hyped policy adventures of the present establishment viz. Make in India, Digitize India and even Clean India campaign seeks to benefit from what is now described as ‘brain gain’. This paper seeks to address some of these concerns.
Diaspora and International Relations: Theory, challenges and prospects
 
Prof. Dr. Santishree. Dhulipudi. P, Department of Politics and Public Administration,Savirtri Bai Phule Pune University, Pune & Dr. Rimli Basu Research Scholar Savirtri Bai Phule Pune University, Pune, India
 
The age old human movement commonly termed as migration transforms into a class today called diaspora. The concept is highly emotional in nature but at the same time of extreme importance in the governance and international projection of the countries from where the diaspora people originated.
 
Diaspora studies was being celebrated during the 1990’s in sociology and anthropology as the “new” form of globalised social organization, with post-national identities and certainly trans border loyalties. Since then, diaspora studies progressively made its impact on IR Scholarship. Several scholars made their scholarly attempt to analyse peace and conflict studies, nationalism, international development, and international economy through diaspora studies. In some instances, diaspora has been simply approached in IR as non-state actors in world politics; however, a more serious approach to diaspora studies imply a revisit to the fundamental assumptions on which IR is built as a discipline: in particular, the bundling of nations and states and the principles of national sovereignty.  Thus, attempt to theorise the dispora studies is not new, however the changing value of world systems, the changing nature of hegemon of world politics, and the rise of political economy demands a greater study in order to understand how the diaspora actually roll over into the sacred sphere of governance and inter-state relationship.  
 
Thus, are the existing theorizations of the international adequate to account for diaspora politics? Does these study make us think the international relations differently? Or simply speaking is Cross-border mobility and diasporic political projects are key features of the contemporary international environment, yet they remain under-theorized in International Relations?,  How does migration and diaspora politics alter our challenge of understandings the state, national identity, sovereignty, state behavior and the nature of the international system? What is the relationship between international migration and key areas of concern for International Relations scholars such as economic development, diplomacy, international security and global normative contestation?
 
Given the modern multiplex model of international system, it is a fact that international migration and diaspora politics does relate to the subfields of International Relations and Politics, including the study of International Political Economy, International Security, International Development, Political Institutions and Political Participation, and Identity Politics. Having said so, this paper seeks to address the theorizing of diaspora politics and international relations; scope and challenges, with special reference to Tamil diaspora in Canada.   
 
Policies and Practices to Engage Diaspora: A Study of Indian Diaspora in South Africa
Dr. Santosh Singh, Assistant Professor, Aurobindo College, Delhi University,New Delhi, India
 
Diaspora, an age-old concept, has gained wider academic and policy interest in recent years. It has contributed their home as well as host country’s development through remittances, philanthropy, skill transfer, investment, advocacy and specialized assistance. In such conditions different country increasingly develop policies aim to embrace their populations abroad. Diaspora has indeed changed many aspects of politics and policies. Most numbers of countries have designed the engagement policies and programs with the goal to strengthen the ties with the diaspora. The country of destination creates Integration and citizenship policies to relate to migrants.
Diaspora has changed many aspects of politics and policies, and citizenship is one of them. Due to the diaspora, the origin and destination countries have been forced to look the population with different eyes. While countries of origin are designing engagement policies with the goal of strengthening ties with the diaspora, countries of destinations design integration and citizenship policies to relate to newcomers. However, in such situation the diaspora find themselves in a complicated situation, as they engage in dual practices that aim at expanding and securing their citizenship in both contexts.
This paper will examine the case study of the India’s policies and programs to engage the diaspora with particular regard to South Africa. It will also analyse India’s diaspora policy since independence to until now. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy role in supporting Diasporas and maximizing their contributions for the benefit of migrants, home and host countries.
Methodologically, this paper will follow the deductive method along with qualitative and quantitative method. Under this, it will analyse and evaluate the policies and programmes of the Indian government to engage the diaspora. Finally, It will also review the role of Indian diaspora to strengthen the ties between India and South Africa.
Unpacking the South African Indian Diaspora: Comparative Experiences in International Migrant for Development
 
Ms. Sanusha Naidu, Project manager Emerging Powers Project, Fahamu Pan-African Kenya

The Indian Diaspora in South Africa is considered to be one of the oldest immigrant communities of Indian descent in South Africa.
Spanning more than 150 years old, the Indian community in the country are characterised by their own identity of being a minority group in a country defined by apartheid and post-apartheid political and socio-economic issues.  As part of the broader 25 million strong Indian Diaspora spread across more than 50 countries, the question that arises is to what extent has the the SA Indian Diaspora being part of and contributed to the Global experiences in International Migration for Development. To this end  given that the majority of the South African Indian Diaspora had remained isolated under apartheid that marginalised them from being part of the broader footprint of the Indian Diaspora, the critical issue is to assess how this has changed in the post-apartheid era; what similarities and differences define the South African Indian Diaspora in terms of its global footprint as well as understanding the social and economic backward linkages to India.  With these and other critical issues the proposed paper will seek to understand how the South African Indian Diaspora has coalesced in the post-apartheid era; what underlines its engagement with counterparts in other countries as well as India and to what extent is this Diaspora in sync with communities in other countries.In addition the paper will also explore patterns and trends of a second generation of Indian migration to South Africa following the dismantling of apartheid and what impact this has had on the political, social and economic landscape of the country. The presentation will conclude with reflections of what constitutes the future endeavours of the India
n Diaspora in South Africa.
 
Dynamics of Integration: South Asian Diaspora in the UK
Dr. Sheetal Sharma, Assistant Professor, School of International Studies, JNU, New Delhi, India
 
Human migration is as old as humanity. The human movement has been both a cause and consequence of nature of social and economic structure of any given society. As time progressed migration attracted academic interest and scholars began studying migration as a phenomenon and its various aspects. Apart from immediate demographic and economic impact, migration and size of migrant population over the years also profoundly affects the socio-cultural fabric of societies to which migrants have moved in, the destination, and the areas from which they have moved out, the origin. In the era of globalization the Diaspora communities have a unique place and role to perform. They have been both an asset, in terms of their economic, social and cultural contribution made to both the origin and destination, and also a source of tension at times because of their ethnic distinctiveness/differences and un-assimilability. The paper avers to look into the issues and challenges of integration of Pakistani Diaspora into the mainstream British culture, and how different generations within diaspora community related and integrate themselves. The paper initially attempts to understand the patterns or phases of international migration to Britain from South Asia (prior to partition of India), subsequently, migration from India and Pakistan after partition and the demographic character of South Asian Diaspora in Britain. In the second part the paper dwells into the issue of social integration, degree of integration among different generations within South Asian Diaspora community. In the end we discuss some of the main challenges faced by the South Asian community in Britain. The paper makes use of both quantitative and qualitative data collected from various secondary sources, such as books, research articles, web sources, newspaper articles etc.
Migration of Indian academics – Chance or Risk for Ethiopia’s University Sector
Dr. Sophia Thubauville, Frobenius-Institut, Goethe Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany
 
Since the turn of the millennium Ethiopia has brought forward a substantial expansion of its higher education institutions. Most of the today 31 universities have been constructed from close
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